Lingual rotation: functions and characteristics of this part of the brain

There are many structures that are part of the nervous system, with the cerebral cortex being one of the most developed in humans. It is possible to observe there the presence of a large number of convolutions and grooves, being folds that allow the condensation in a small space of a large amount of neuronal mass.

These folds are part of the gray matter of the brain and participate in different functions. One of them is lingual torsion, Which we will talk about briefly throughout this article.

    The lingual turn: what is it and where is it?

    It is called the lingual torsion one of the convolutions or cerebral twists, that is to say the part that comes out of the folds present in the cerebral cortex. It is a convolution not as well known or popular as others like the supramarginal gyrus, but nevertheless seems to have great importance in different brain functions.

    The lingual turn is located in the occipital lobe, In its middle part, and is located between the calcareous cleft and the collateral groove. At its ends it joins on the one hand the visual zone in contact with the wedge, while on the other hand it ends up joining the parahippocampal rotation in the temporal lobe.

    Although the name of this brain region seems to indicate a relationship with speech, the truth is that its name has nothing to do with its function: the name of this trick largely comes from its tongue-shaped shape. However, oddly enough, it is involved in some aspects of the language, but not in the oral ones.

      Main functions of this part of the brain

      The lingual gyrus is a brain gyrus that is involved or involved in different functions of great importance to human beings. Among them we can highlight the following.

      1. Importance in visual processing and color perception

      Lingual rotation, as an active part of the occipital lobe, has been observed to be associated with the ability to encode complex images. It also seems to be related to the subjective perception of color, producing its achromatopsic lesion.

      2. Participate in visual memory

      Different research has also shown that the lingual turn not only participates in the coding of images but also plays a relevant role in visual memory. producing his injury different stimulus recognition problems. In fact, the lingual turn is one of the areas that allows us to identify stimuli with symbolic meaning, such as letters. In addition to that, it also helps to recognize faces and objects.

      3. Reading

      We have already said that the lingual turn, despite its name, is not widely associated with the ability to speak, but has some implication in language. And it is that another of the great functions associated with the lingual turn has to do with reading, being one of the parts of the brain that allows identify and name stimuli through vision to transform them later, being a relevant first step to allow reading.

      4. Semantic processing

      Besides the simple visual, the lingual turn participates in the processing of semantic information both in situations where the visual stimulus has symbolic elements in itself or where the subject tries to attribute it.

      5. Involvement in emotion

      The lingual turn it is also related to the parahippocampal gyrus, So that it is in contact with the limbic system. It was observed that the activation of this turn correlates with the impression of emotionality in the images.

      6. The ability to imagine: divergent thinking and creativity

      The ability to create and strategize different from the usual and known strategies for solving problems is also related to lingual turn activity, although it is more strongly associated with the frontal lobe. More precisely, the lingual turn would be linked to the creation and development of mental images that are part of the imagination.

      7. The ability to dream

      Another aspect that has been associated with the lingual bend is the link that has been observed between this bend and the possibility of take pictures while sleeping, Be at least partly responsible that we can have dreams.

      Problems associated with your injury

      The lesion of the lingual bend can generate different types of problems and deficits which can lead to a deterioration or a limitation of the functionality of the human being in his daily life. Among them stands out the possible appearance of pure alexia or the inability to read (while retaining the ability to write).

      Another problem that can arise is prosopagnosia, a type of visual agnosia in which we are unable to recognize familiar faces.

      Memorization and spatial navigation are also modified, As well as achromatopsia or color blindness may appear.

      It has also been observed that the lesion of the lingual gyrus, mainly due to cerebral infarctions in this area, tends to generate loss of dreaming ability (In other words, having dreams). In addition to this, lingual bend has also been associated with other problems: one example is the recently studied link between this bend and the severity of anxiety-depressive symptoms in young people.

      Excessive activation of this area also has effects: it has been observed that can generate visual noise, the perception of small black and white dots throughout the visual field that look like the snow effect that would occur on an old TV and the antenna would malfunction.

      Bibliographical references:

      • Couvy-Duchesne, B .; Strike, LT; from Zubicaray, G .; McMachon, KL; Thompson, Premier; Hickie, IB; Martin, NG and Wright, MJ (2018). The superficial zone of lingual torsion is associated with the severity of anxiety and depression in young adults: a genetic concentration approach. eNeuro, 5 (1).
      • Bogousslavsky, J .; Miklossy, J .; Deruaz, JP; Assal, G. and Regli, F. (1987). Giral and fusiform rotation in visual treatment: clinical-pathological study of upper altitudinal hemianopia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 50: 607-617.
      • Kehoe, EG; Toomey, JM; Balsters, JH and Bokde, AL (2012). Healthy aging is associated with increased neural processing of positive valence, but attenuated processing of emotional arousal: an RMF study. Aging of Neurobiol.
      • Zhang, L .; Qiao, L .; Chen, Q .; Yand, W .; Xu, M .; Yao, X .; Qiu, J. and Yang, D. (2016). The volume of gray matter of the lingual turn mediates the relationship between inhibitory function and divergent thinking. In front of. Psychol, 7: 1532.
      • Zilles, K. and Amunts, K. (2012). Architecture of the cerebral cortex. In: Mai, J. and Paxinos, G. (2012). The human nervous system. 3rd edition.

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