The brain is the most important set of organs we have because it governs the functioning of the whole organism so that we can stay alive. If we look at it from the outside the first thing we can see is the cerebral cortex, a compact region full of wrinkles and folds. These folds form convolutions or turns, as well as grooves and cracks. Among these, there are two which stand out particularly and allow to differentiate different lobes: the Silvio slit and the Rolando slit.
In this article we will focus on the Rolando slot to analyze what it is and its importance, as well as the regions which surround it and certain disorders which may result from it or which generate relevant effects on it.
Rolando’s Lunge: Are We Facing What We Are Facing?
Rolando’s cleft is, along with Silvio’s, one of the largest and most visible fissures, grooves, or fissures in the cerebral cortex. Also called central groove this slit passes vertically, separating the frontal and parietal lobes and with it, at the functional level, the primary motor cortices (Brodmann zone 4) and somatosensory (Brodmann zones 1, 2 and 3).
this crack it is also surrounded by the precentral and postcentral bends and is found bilaterally, that is, this groove appears in both cerebral hemispheres. It appears in the central part of the brain and almost reaches Silvio’s fissure, being separated from it by one of the opercles
In addition to making this separation, it was speculated that in the brain matter that makes up Rolando’s cleft, there might be some association between motor and sensory information, so that they would act as a bridge and help integrate both types of information.
This slit, similar to Silvio’s, it forms early throughout fetal development. Specifically, it begins to be seen by magnetic resonance imaging from the twenty-eighth week of gestation (although by the twenty-sixth one can already guess in some cases), appearing from the areas parietal walls and resulting in more and more visibility and depth as the brain develops.
Rolando cleft disorders and problems
The Rolando or central slit is one of the most visible in the entire human brain and allows us to separate the frontal and parietal lobes, two of the most important regions of the brain. But Rolando’s cleft sometimes does not appear or may be involved or affected by various issues. Some of them are as follows.
Lysencephaly, which can occur completely or incompletely, is a disorder in which throughout fetal development no folds, convolutions and grooves in the brain. This is a problem that can have various repercussions, which can lead to the death of the fetus or baby within a few years and cause alterations such as cardiorespiratory difficulties or seizures. Sometimes children with this disorder may not experience symptoms, but this is not common.
Ruptured blood vessels or suffering from ischemia can even affect the areas surrounding Rolando’s cleft and even flood it. This would cause several problems that could end up affecting the performance of movements and / or the capture of tactile sensations.
3. Rolandic epilepsy
Epilepsy is a disorder in which one or more groups of neurons become hyperexcitable on stimulation and eventually generate seizures. Rolandic epilepsy is one of the types of epilepsy that exist, Being one of the most common and typical of childhood.
The seizure does not generate loss of consciousness, and is initially distinguished by a tingling that eventually turns into inability to control the face and limbs, experiencing uncontrollable shocks in these areas and inability to speak. It is a generally mild type of epilepsy that occurs during sleep or in the morning, and is caused by hyperexcitability of neurons located in the Rolando cleft.
The existence of different types of brain tumors can alter the physiognomy of the brain, Including the displacement of cracks such as Rolando and the destruction of neurons present in their depths or in adjacent areas.
- Cohen-Sacher, B .; Lerman-Sagie, T .; Lev, D .; Malinger, G. (2006). Ultrasound milestones in the development of the fetal cerebral cortex: a longitudinal study. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 27: 494-502.
- You had.; Lister, WS & Fong, KW (2004), When are fetal brain grooves visible on prenatal ultrasound and what is the normal pattern of early development of the fetal sulcus ?. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 24: 706-715.