The hippocampus is one of the oldest parts of the brain; it is believed to have worked in our ancestors for hundreds of millions of years. It is a biological structure known to be strongly involved in the functioning of memory. Our own individual identity, as well as our ability to learn, depends on him.
The hippocampal formation, which is the region formed by the hippocampus and a series of adjacent structures, is not functionally homogeneous; it has several parts that deal with different things. The subiculum is one of them, And plays a very special role in the functioning of memory, as recently discovered.
What is the subiculum?
The subiculum is part of the brain located at the bottom of the hippocampal formationThere is one of these in each of the cerebral hemispheres. It is mainly made up of gray matter, since in this anatomical region are grouped the sums of neurons that connect to neural structures such as the amygdala or the hypothalamus.
Although not much is yet known about how exactly the subdomain works, it is usually associated with two functions: own memory system memory processing which involves different parts of the brain, and the processing of spatial and movement information relating to the space occupied by objects at a given time. Additionally, it is believed to play an important role in epileptic seizures.
His working memory
Until a few years ago, it was believed that human memory worked as follows. During the experience of an experiment, a representation of it is “recorded” by the neural networks that make up the hippocampus. This cerebral structure would be responsible for making possible the short-term memory processing of this experience; that is, when we remember this information a few minutes, hours or days after memorizing it, the hippocampus is the part of the brain that collects the data.
However, over time, this memory changes from short-term memory to long-term memory, and with this transition would also come a “migration” of the data stored in the brain: they would pass from the hippocampus to other parts. of the brain. brain, distributed among the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes of each hemisphere.
However, a few years ago it was discovered that this is not how memory works and that the subiculum plays a very important role in it.
The subiculum as short-term memory
As recent studies have shown with techniques to shed light in real time on the most activated parts of the brain at a given time, when we have a new experience, their memory changes from the hippocampus to two parts of the brain. It is “archived” in two copies which operate in parallel, with relative independence from one another. Short term memory is stored in the subicle, And long-term memory remains in the frontal lobe cortex, but remains “off,” latent.
In the beginning, it is the copy of the file stored in the subiculum that allows us to evoke these experiences shortly after having lived them. However, over the days, this copy disappears and the memory stored in the front of the brain’s cortex is activated.
So this process establishes that the operation of memory processing follows two different pathsInstead of following a sequence in which memory physically moves from one particular location in the brain to another. There is a part of the file which remains silent and which, only if certain conditions are met, manifests itself.
Parts of the subicle
the subiculum it can be divided into several structures. They are as follows.
This is the area through which information from the hippocampus enters. is linked to memory and movement processing.
This part of the subiculum contains neurons responsible for focusing the face in a certain direction, Allow your location to match certain goals.
This part of the brain contains network cells, which are neurons that are activated when we perceive certain movements and register them as such.
Little is known about this region, although it has been shown to play a role in the development of anosognosia. in case of Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, in this area of the brain, the neurons are slightly smaller and are distributed in a more compact and dense formation than in most other similar regions.