Telencephalon: parts and functions of this part of the brain

The human brain can be divided into a large number of subcomponents; It is not for nothing that it is the most complex organ that we have.

However, this “breaking down into pieces” does not always happen in the same way. Sometimes we’ll just look at the larger, more general structures, such as the diencephalon, and at other times, we’ll go deeper and focus on the smaller components that together make up the larger ones, such as the subthalamus ( which is part of the diencephalon).).

Examining the smaller parts of the central nervous system can be very helpful in understanding how a particular individual’s neural networks work, but at other times it is more interesting to maintain a more holistic view of the organ of thought. and look at their more general structures. In this case, we will see one of these: the telencephalon.

    What is the telencephalon?

    The telencephalon is the largest part of the brain and is the structure in which the integration of information transmitted by neurons reaches its most complex stage. It is located just above the diencephalon, which it covers as if it were a helmet, and is not bordered by any other part of the central nervous system at its top: it forms the surface full of folds. which characterizes the human brain.

    Technically, the term “telencephalon” is used to denote one of the three main formations created at the end of the neural tube grow until it finally develops the brain. Thus, in an adult brain, the telencephalon is the set of parts of the central nervous system which, at the earliest stage of development, arise from this bulky structure.

    How? ‘Or’ What the telencephalon is the outermost part of the brainMost of the data that comes to you has already been worked on before by other groups of neurons located in subcortical areas, that is, closer to the lower part of the organ.

    In addition, the telencephalon is divided into two cerebral lobes, each located on the left and right side of the head and separated from each other by the interhemispheric cleft.

    Parts of the telencephalon

    The main components into which the telencephalon can be divided are as follows.

    1. Cerebral cortex

    It’s the surface full of folds and cracks which characterize the most visible part of the brain. It is mainly composed of gray matter and several layers of neurons coordinated with each other.

    2. Seahorse

    The hippocampus is involved in several processes, but one of the main ones is the consolidation of the briefs belonging to the declaratory report, As well as its evocation in the future. Damage in this area frequently produces amnesia-related disorders.

      3. Cerebral tonsil

      The cerebral amygdala is a structure on both sides of the brain, that is, one per hemisphere, in the so-called temporal lobes. It is part of the limbic system, Which is a network of cells responsible for managing the appearance and regulation of emotional states, so it plays an important role in learning through the possibility of associating actions with consequences.

      The amygdala is also involved in emotional memory, that is, it does something similar to what the hypothalamus does with “cold data” about what we are going through, although in this case the memory itself is simply an emotional reaction partially dissociated from the rest of the recording.

      4. Corpus striatum

      The corpus striatum is also an important component of the telencephalon as it is the main route of data entry to the basal ganglia, In addition to receiving afferents from the cerebral cortex.

      Thus, it intervenes in the process allowing the realization of highly automated movements, among others, since it is linked to the basal ganglia.

      5. Olfactory bulb

      It is one of the oldest parts of the brain, having been used for tens of millions of years. It is a structure located under the lower part of the cerebral cortex, and he receives olfactory information from outside from the body.

      In addition, the olfactory bulb has the particularity of being the input of a type of information which does not have to pass through the thalamus before being diffused by the brain.

        6. Basal ganglia

        The basal ganglia are sets of gray matter involved in different processes, usually related to the control of voluntary movements and with “automating” these so that attention can be directed to other things.

          How are their structures coordinated?

          As we have seen, the telencephalon has different more or less specialized structures. ** To what extent do these parts of the telencephalon work in parallel? **

          In reality, it would be too simplistic to assume that these regions barely communicate with each other and focus only on their area of ​​specialization.

          Neuroscience research shows that all of them are intimately synchronized and that none is sufficient on its own. Therefore, they are only relatively specialized structures, in the sense that some are more important than others in terms of particular function, but all are necessary for each other.

          its functions

          As we have seen, the functions of the telencephalon largely depend on which of its components we are looking at. However, if one takes into account that most of it is made up of the cerebral cortex, one could say that it is mainly responsible for integrate all kinds of information on what is happening outside and on the actions that will be taken in the future.

          This is why the cerebral cortex it has different areas of association in which the information is processed together to result in more complete and meaningful units of information. For example, thanks to it we can recognize someone thanks to the integration of information concerning the reliefs of each part of the face, the sound of his voice, his posture, etc.

          Bibliographical references:

          • Jarvis, ED; Güntürkün, O .; Bruce, L. et al. (2005). Avian brains and new understanding of brain evolution in vertebrates. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 6 (2): pages 151 to 159.
          • Kandel, Eric R. (2006). Principles of Neural Science (5th ed.). Appleton and Lange: McGraw-Hill.
          • Morgado, I. (2005). Psychobiology: from genes to cognition and behavior. Barcelona: Ariel Neuroscience.

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