Our brain is a large and complex set of organs, Compliant by different structures that perform different functions in the body. The most visible of all is the most external and the most developed in humans, allowing their existence from the processing of information from the senses to the implementation of complex cognitive capacities: the cerebral cortex.
But the cerebral cortex does not have the same structure over its entire surface or the same functions at all its points. This led to the creation of imaginary divisions that limit different regions of the crust for study. And of all the existing ones, the best known and most used is that of the Brodmann districts.
A map with the parts of the cerebral cortex
They are called Brodmann zones the set of imaginary divisions into which the cerebral cortex can be divided and which allows the identification of specific regions of it.
This division was proposed by psychiatrist Korbinian Brodmann in 1909, not being random divisions but based on the existence of differences in the composition, structure and arrangement of cells in different areas of the cortex.
The author’s objective was to generate a topographic classification from the study of anatomical features, focusing on cytoarchitectonics and generating spatial divisions of the crust to develop the theory and apply it in the field of the pathology. Studies have been carried out with a large number of animal species, however it would only describe in detail the human brain and that of other apes.
In the case of humans, Brodmann has made a division into a total of 47 zones or zones, although some of them can be subdivided up to a total of 52.
Brodmann zones currently form a classification of the most famous and used brain areas in the world, Having made it possible to perform brain mapping and is very useful both in finding specific regions and in directing and performing different medical interventions.
The different areas of Brodmann
In the original classification, Brodmann divided the cerebral cortex into 47 different areas. Specifically, we can find the following areas.
Brodmann Zone 1
Brodmann Zone 1 is just after Rolando’s central groove or slot. is part of the primary somatosensory zone and works with somesthetic information from the body.
Brodmann district 2
This area is also part of the primary somatosensory cortex, having the same functions as the previous one.
Brodmann district 3
Along with the previous two, it is part of the primary somatosensory cortex. It also collects and processes information from somesthetic state and sensations like touch or proprioception.
Brodmann district 4
This area of the brain largely corresponds to the primary motor area, being of great importance in sending the skeletal muscles the order to contract or dilate.
Brodmann district 5
This Brodmann zone is part of the secondary somatosensory zone, contributing to the processing of somesthetic information.
Brodmann district 6
Region in which the premotor zone is located, thanks to which we can plan our movements before performing them and in which several basic programs of movement are stored.
Brodmann district 7
Like 5, area 7 is part of the secondary somatosensory cortex, helping to process and integrate information from the primary somatosensory cortex. It allows the recognition of stimuli by capturing and allowing the understanding of the general characteristics of these.
Brodmann district 8
It is part of the secondary motor cortex, in this case having particular importance in the movement of the muscles that control the eyes.
Brodmann district 9
This area is part of the prefrontal, in particular the dorsolateral prefrontal. Closely related to executive functions and the sense of self-awareness, she works on aspects such as empathy, memory, attention, processing and emotional management. It is also partly a tertiary motor zone, influencing for example verbal fluency.
Brodmann district 10
Like the previous one, it is part of the prefrontal (being its most anterior part) and more precisely of the frontopolar region. It is related to aspects such as planning, introspection, memory and the ability to divide attention.
Brodmann district 11
Like 9 and 10, area 11 is a tertiary association area that is part of the prefrontal, participating in higher cognitive functions and skills. More precisely, it is part of the orbitofrontal region, related to the management of our social interaction and to the management and adaptation of our behavior, inhibiting and controlling for example aggression.
Brodmann district 12
This area too includes part of the frontal orbit, As above.
Brodmann district 13
This area has the peculiarity that it can be difficult to see with the naked eye. And it is part of the island, in its old part. It helps coordinate the movements necessary for the tongue. It also connects the prefrontal and limbic system, related to sexual and emotional behavior.
Brodmann district 14
This zone has practically the same functions as the previous one, but also it is linked to the processing of olfactory and visceral information.
Brodmann district 15
Related to the processing of information on blood pressure and carotid pressure, as well as panic attacks. Initially, Brodmann would not find this area (nor the previous one) in humans but in other apes, although later research revealed that we have similar structures.
Brodmann district 16
This area occupies most of the island, helping to process aspects such as pain, temperature, phonological information or the ability to swallow.
Brodmann district 17
Main visual area. This is the first area of the cortex that begins to process visual information from the lateral geniculate nucleus, also having a mapping or retinotopic representation of the eye and the visual field that allows for deeper and more precise processing. You also get the first impressions of color, orientation or movement.
Brodmann district 18
One of the extra-striated crusts that are part of the secondary visual cortex. It allows 3-dimensional vision and detection of light intensity.
Brodmann district 19
It is also one of the extra-striated or visual secondary cortices, and in this case also allows visual recognition of stimuli by binding to memory.
Brodmann district 20
It is also part of the ventral visual pathway or the way of what (which allows you to see color and shape). This ultimately allows us to know what we are seeing. Includes the lower temporal gyrus.
Brodmann district 21
In zone 21 is a domain of auditory association, Which is part of the famous Wernicke region. It participates, among other things, in the understanding of language.
Brodmann district 22
When we think of the Wernicke region itself, we mainly think of this region. It is therefore related to the ability to understand language, helping to transform and relate auditory information to its meaning.
Brodmann district 23
It is part of the area of the cortex related to emotional information and memory, being connected to the limbic system.
Brodmann district 24
As the preceding participates in the processing and perception of emotions and its link with behavior (connection with the orbitofrontal and limbic system).
Brodmann district 25
Located near the cingulum, in the subgeneral zone. It is linked to movements that occur below the knee, mood, appetite, or sleep. the part closest to the forehead is related to self-esteem.
Brodmann district 26
Is relates to autobiographical memory i is located at the convolution of the gyrus.
Brodmann district 27
This brain region, like the previous one, is linked to processes related to memory (being close to the hippocampus), as well as to areas of the brain that allow the perception and identification of odors. In fact, it is part of the so-called primary olfactory cortex.
Brodmann district 28
Associative cortex which, like the previous one, participates both in memory processes and in the integration of information from olfactory perception. too much part of the entorhinal cortex is in this areaThe latter being a region that allows information from the rest of the brain to pass into the hippocampus and vice versa.
Brodmann district 29
This area, in the retro-plenary part of the cingulate, is also linked to memory, being an example of the evocation of experiences.
Brodmann district 30
Associative zone as before and with similar functions. Located in the subplenial part of the cingulum. It is linked to memory and learning, as well as conditioning.
Brodmann district 31
Also in the convolution of the gyrus, this area is linked to the processing of memory and emotions, participating in the feeling of familiarity.
Brodmann district 32
Part of the parietal and almost of the frontal, in the dorsal part of the turn of the cingulum, this region participates in cognitive processes such as decision making and response inhibition.
Brodmann district 33
Like the previous one, this area is related to decision making as well as pain perception, emotional processing and motor planning.
Brodmann district 34
In this region, the uncus can be found. It is therefore an area that would be part of the primary olfactory cortex. Perception of taste or olfactory and gustatory memory these are also aspects in which he participates.
Brodmann district 35
In it is the perirrinal cortex. Participates in memory, being linked to unconscious memories. Also in image recognition.
Brodmann district 36
Brodmann area 36 help encode and retrieve autobiographical memories. It also helps to process information related to spatial location. In it is the parahippocampal cortex.
Brodmann district 37
It incorporates part of the spindle lathe. Proceed to multimodal information This area is related to facial recognition, sign language or understanding metaphors, among others.
Brodmann district 38
Another area of association, linked to both memory and emotions. Also in semantic processing of information.
Brodmann district 39
In this Brodmann domain we find the angular turn, involved in the understanding of both verbal and written language or in calculus.
Brodmann district 40
On this occasion we find the supramarginal gyrus as one of the most relevant structures. It allows along the angular bend the possibility of linking graphemes and phonemes, which makes it essential for reading and writing. It is also linked to tactile and motor learning and recognition.
Brodmann district 41
Zone corresponding to the primary auditory cortex, the first nucleus of the cortex when processing auditory information. Detects frequency changes and helps locate the sound source.
Brodmann district 42
Secondary auditory cortex, Just like the Wernicke region. It enables information obtained from the primary auditory cortex to be processed at a higher level.
Brodmann district 43
Located at the back of the island and practically in the Silvio slot, it is the part of the gustatory bark that allows us to process the taste and flavor information at the level of the bark.
Brodmann district 44
Together with zone 45, it forms the Broca zone, allowing the production of the language at the spoken and written level. Zone 44 corresponds to the opercular part of Broca’s zone, also connecting the intonation, gestures and movements necessary to produce language.
Brodmann district 45
Next to the previous one, it forms the drilling zone, Essential for the production of fluent speech. Zone 45 includes pars triangularis, linked to semantic processing as well as gesture, facial expression and intonation.
District Brodmann 46
In the inferior frontal gyrus, it is part of the dorsolateral prefrontal, being relevant its role in terms of attention and working memory.
Brodmann district 47
Also called pars orbitalis, it also participates in the Broca region and has an important implication in the language. More precisely in the syntax of language, as well as that of music.
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