Our cerebral cortex is a complex structureExtremely developed, which allows us to perform and coordinate the various functions and actions that our body can perform, both physically and mentally and both in terms of perception and action.
But this structure is not homogeneous: different areas of the brain specialize in different functions, with certain parts of the brain being the most relevant for certain mental processes. An example of this is the toothed twistOf great importance in the formation of memories, which we will talk about throughout this article.
What is the toothed twist?
We call a toothed bend a 1 convolution of the cerebral cortex located in the lower part of the temporal lobe of the brain, part of one of the oldest phylogenetically speaking regions of the crust (the arquicorteza). It borders, among other structures, the corpus callosum (although it is separated from it by the gray indusis), the entorhinal cortex, the hippocampus, and the rotation of the cingulate.
This small region of the brain is part of the hippocampal formation, connecting it to the cortex, and is made up mainly of gray matter (myelinated somas and axons). In fact, this bend is considered it can be seen as a modified and partially separated part of the hippocampus itself during neurological development.
Thus, this part of the cortex plays an important role in terms of human memory capacity, acting as a bridge between the entorhinal cortex (which in turn is seen as a bridge between the hippocampus and the rest of the cortex) and the hippocampus. . This structure acts to receive afferents from the first and sends information to the rest of the hippocampal formation, going through the toothed turn the perforation path. However, their connections to the entorhinal cortex do not allow feedback through the same channel. These will be other structures that send information back to the entorhinal cortex so that it can distribute it to other parts of the cortex.
The toothed torsion has the particularity of being mainly formed of granule cells, Which in their axonal endings end up being transformed into mossy fibers which synapse exclusively with the Amon field of the hippocampus. In addition, these cells are one of the few that can generate new neurons throughout the life cycle, in certain types of mammals (it is not yet known if this also occurs in humans).
The functions of tooth rotation, as mentioned above, are largely derived from its role as a connection between the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus. Thus, one of its main roles is to transmit information to the latter structure in order to be able to process it.
Dental rotation therefore plays an important role in memory formation, based on episodic memory. It is also very important in terms of navigation and spatial memory, this structure that allows us to distinguish similar environments.
also exercises a role in memory consolidation and reclamation, Who deserve the above when participating in the recognition of similar places.
As the hippocampal formation is also part of the limbic system, it is suspected that the dentate gyrus also plays a role in the integration into memories of emotions evoked by the experience. Likewise, the existence of variations in this area has been observed in the presence of emotional alterations such as stress or anxiety, as well as in depression.
The birth of neurons in adults
Traditionally, it has always been said that the formation of new neurons only occurs in the first years of life and that once we reach adulthood we have roughly the same neurons for life until they die. . However, over time, it has been discovered that in some mammals, although not widespread, certain areas of the brain continue to produce, in small amounts, new neurons throughout the life cycle.
One of the points where this neurogenesis has been detected is tooth rotation. said birth has been associated with task learning and spatial learning, Which in turn seem to potentiate the birth of new neurons. However, studies in this regard have yet to show that neurogenesis generates an improvement in these abilities, finding conflicting results (although this may be due to the need to develop strong synapses between new neurons). Further research is needed in this area,
It has also been observed that the environment is of great importance in the formation of new neurons: stress or cholinergic lesions decrease the ability to generate new neurons, while the stimulation power. The observation of alterations in neurogenesis in this area is one of the main reasons that have led us to reflect on the implication of gypsy rotation in the management of emotions, whether this alteration in neurogenesis is the cause or the consequence.
- Nieto-Escámez, FA; Moreno-Montoya, M. (2011). Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus: implications for learning and memory in the adult brain. Camber. Neurocien., 16 (4): 193-199.
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