Fruits, along with vegetables, are an essential part of any healthy diet because they provide high levels of nutrients in the form of vitamins, minerals, and fiber that the body uses to maintain organic functions.
The diversity of fruits on the planet is very high, so much so that it is surprising that we do not consume the recommended rations of fruits and vegetables on a daily basis despite all kinds, shapes, colors and flavors.
For dessert, in the form of juice, mash, in salad or even as a starter, fruits are very versatile in cooking, then we will see how many types of fruits there are according to different classifications.
The main types of fruits (classified)
We have all heard that we need to take in about 3 pieces of fruits and vegetables a day. Humans cannot do without the plant kingdom because it provides us with all kinds of nutrient-dense foods in the form of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and even some protein.
We must not forget to incorporate these foods into our diet that although they are very diverse and come in all kinds and conditions, there are not a few people who take absolutely no fruit in their day-to-day life.
Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables helps prevent illnesses, including high cholesterol or diabetes. Fruits are the best sweet and nature offers us, being a food much more suitable for children than ice cream, candy or any other candy. And not only can they be eaten as a dessert or as a snack, but they can also be combined with savory dishes, in the form of salads, side dishes or taking them in a refreshing juice or as a jam. The possibilities are limitless!
If we had to classify fruits according to different characteristics, we would never end. There are all colors, shapes, hardnesses, with or without seeds, more tropical and more polar. Some are only taken in powder form, like cocoa, or in the juiciest form, like strawberries and melon. Here, we have chosen to base ourselves on two main criteria: according to the degree of acidity and according to the characteristics of the fruit.
Classification by degree of acidity
This is the classification of fruits according to the degree of acidity.
1. Sour fruits
Sour fruits they have many beneficial acids, which influence their taste. These acids help lower cholesterol, triglycerides and other substances that build up quickly to harm. Within this group we can find fruits like:
- Apple (depending on variety)
2. Semi-acidic fruits
Semi-acidic fruits have a mild, slightly sour taste, and in the field of fruits, are considered a source of protein. Most of the fruits in this group contain essential amino acids in amounts necessary to meet human biological needs and are therefore considered very important. Among them we find:
- Nispro (depending on its variety)
3. Neutral fruits
In general, neutral fruits are fruits rich in vitamins and minerals. Many are considered essential to our health because they help the immune and muscle systems work. In this group we find nuts and walnuts.
4. Sweet fruits
Truly, most fruits fall into this category. In this group we find all the fruits that have no acids or have them at minimum levels.
What we find in these fruits are high levels of vitamins, among which we highlight vitamins A, C and E. The following fruits are part of this group:
- Red currants
According to the characteristics of the fruit
The other classification of fruit types is based on the characteristics of the fruit when ripe. In this sense, we can differentiate between drupes, marcs and grain fruits. Added to this classification are fruits which share certain characteristics which are classified both in another category of fruits, namely citrus fruits, forest fruits and tropical fruits.
Drupes are fruits that have a hard bone inside, covered with a fleshy, edible layer. The term comes from the Greek expression “olive drupe”, which translates to “ripe olive”.
Among the most common stone fruits are:
Marc is the fruit whose seeds are protected by a fleshy extension. They differ from drupes in that the pomace does not have a hard bone which contains the seeds or is a seed in itself.
Among the pomace we find fruits like:
3. Of cereals
The third type of fruit in this classification is that of grain fruits. The striking feature of these fruits is that their real fruits have the appearance of seeds and are contained in a fleshy interior. Among these we find:
Citrus fruits have their own group and are characterized by being fruits with an intense sour taste. due to the fact that they are very rich in citric acid. They also contain high levels of vitamin C, a nutrient that is very beneficial for our body because it strengthens our defenses. Among them we find:
5. Tropical fruits
Tropical fruits are native to regions located in the tropics. Also included in this category are fruits which do not have to grow in tropical regions but which meet certain characteristics, such as requiring high humidity and hot temperature in order to develop.
Due to the type of ecosystem where the plants that give these fruits grow, with very frequent rains and suitable temperature for many classes of trees, these tend to be relatively large and juicy.
Among the tropical fruits we find:
We call it berries those obtained from wild plants and not from crops. These are small fruits typical of cold or temperate regions. Most of them are berries and among them we find:
- You have to do it
- Red currants
A dried fruit is a fruit which, in its natural composition (i.e. without human manipulation), has less than 50% water.
They are generally high energy foods, with a higher caloric concentration than other fruits. In addition, they are characterized by their richness in fats, proteins and trace elements, ideal to consume as an aperitif or in vegetable butters.
Among the nuts we find:
- New from Macadamia
- Vicente, AR; Manganaris, Georgia; Sozzi, GO; Cristo, CH (2009). “Nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables”. In Florkowski, WJ; Shewfelt, RL; Brueckner, B .; Prussia, SE, ed. Postharvest handling: a systems approach (2nd edition). Amsterdam: Elsevier. pages 57-106.