Types of vitamins: functions and benefits for your body

Vitamins are organic compounds with a very heterogeneous structure. They are essential for the body, growth, health and emotional balance.

Unlike other nutrients eg protein, carbohydrate or fat, they do not provide energy, but are essential in the body for maintaining energy.

Functions of vitamins

Vitamins must be ingested through the diet to avoid deficiencies, but there is no food that contains all the vitamins, so you need the combination of different food groups to be well nourished and cover the requirements of these substances.

Vitamins are nutrients that the body needs to assimilate other nutrients and, in short, the functions of these substances are:

  • Participate in the formation of chemicals in the nervous system and participate in the formation of hormones, red blood cells and genetic material
  • They regulate metabolic systems
  • They are necessary for growth and health

Most of the vitamins present in food can be eliminated during cooking or even under the effect of light, so it is advisable to consume these products fresh.

Classification of vitamins

Vitamins can be classified into two types: water soluble and fat soluble.

water soluble vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are present in the watery parts of foods. They are absorbed by simple diffusion or active transport. Their excess is excreted in the urine and the body does not have the capacity to store them, so they are easily eliminated. They should be consumed daily and can be obtained from fruits, vegetables, milk and meat products.

The water soluble vitamins are:

  • Vitamin C ascorbic acid
  • Vitamin B1 thiamine
  • Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin
  • Vitamin B3 or niacin
  • Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid
  • Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine
  • Vitamin B8 Biotin
  • Vitamin B9 o Folic acid
  • Vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin

Fat soluble vitamins

These vitamins dissolve in oils and fats and are found in the fat soluble parts of foods.. They are transported in lipids and are difficult to eliminate. They are obtained from fruits, vegetables, fish, egg yolks and some nuts.

Fat soluble vitamins are:

  • vitamin A or retinol
  • Vitamin D or Calciferol
  • Vitamin E. α-tocopherol
  • Vitamin K or phytomenadione

Functions of vitamins

The functions of water soluble and fat soluble vitamins are:

vitamin A

Participates in reproduction, protein synthesis and muscle differentiation. It prevents night blindness and is necessary for the maintenance of the immune system and the maintenance of the skin and mucous membranes.

  • Nutritional requirements 0.8-1 mg / day

Some sources of vitamin A are:

  • carrot
  • spinach
  • parsley
  • Tuna
  • Pretty
  • cheese
  • Egg yolk
  • pumpkin
  • wheat
  • apricot

Vitamin B1

It is part of a coenzyme involved in energy metabolismHence, it is necessary to get carbohydrates and fatty acids (ATP). It is also essential for the functioning of the nervous system and the heart.

  • Nutritional requirements: 1.5 to 2 mg / day.

Some sources of vitamin B1 are:

  • meats
  • u
  • cereals
  • dried fruit
  • legumes
  • Yeast
  • Pipas
  • peanuts
  • Chickpeas
  • Lentils

Vitamin B2

It is also involved in the release of energy and is linked to maintaining good eye and skin health.. Its deficiency causes skin problems (eg dermatitis) and eye symptoms.

  • Nutritional requirements: 1.8 mg / day

Some sources of vitamin B2 are:

  • cheese
  • coco
  • mushrooms
  • u
  • Lentils
  • cereals
  • Milk
  • carn
  • Yeast
  • almonds

Vitamin B3

It is part of two coenzymes (NAD and NADP) and is therefore another vitamin involved in energy metabolism. of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids. Its deficiency causes a disease called “pellagra”, with symptoms such as skin, digestive and nervous problems (mental confusion, delirium, etc.).

  • Nutritional requirements: 15 mg / day

Some sources of vitamin B3 are:

  • rock
  • Yeast
  • liver
  • almonds
  • mushrooms
  • carn
  • Salmon
  • Tuna
  • peas
  • dried fruit

Vitamin B5

This vitamin is involved in different stages of the synthesis of lipids, neurotransmitters, thyroid hormone and hemoglobin.. In addition, it helps in tissue regeneration. Its deficiency is associated with two diseases: megaloblastic anemia and neuropathy.

  • Nutritional requirements: 50 mg / day

Some sources of vitamin B5 are:

  • Except for beer
  • Royal jelly
  • or
  • mushrooms
  • lawyer
  • cauliflower
  • cereals
  • peanuts
  • we
  • carn

Vitamin B6

Participates in the metabolism of proteins and fatty acids, in the formation of hemoglobin and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). It facilitates the release of glycogen from the liver to the muscles. Determinant in the regulation of the central nervous system.

  • Nutritional requirements: 2.1 mg / day

Some sources of vitamin B6:

  • Lentils
  • Chickpeas
  • chicken
  • pig
  • banana
  • cereals
  • liver
  • dried fruit
  • lawyer
  • u

Vitamin B8

It is necessary for the skin and the circulatory system, Participates in the formation of fatty acids, helps in the breakdown of carbohydrates and fats to maintain a stable body temperature and optimal energy levels. Stimulator of healthy cell growth.

  • Nutritional requirements: 0.1 mg / day

Some sources of vitamin B8 are:

  • we
  • peanuts
  • liver
  • kidney
  • Chocolate
  • or
  • cauliflower
  • mushrooms
  • Hazelnut
  • Bananas

Vitamin B9

Necessary for the formation of cells and DNA, and is important for the first month of formation. It works in conjunction with vitamin B12 and vitamin C in the use of protein. It helps to maintain the formation of the intestinal tract.

  • Nutritional requirements: 0.3 mg / day

Some sources of vitamin B9 are:

  • salad
  • carrot
  • parsley
  • tomato
  • spinach
  • dried fruit
  • u
  • Milk
  • fish
  • liver

Vitamin B12

Indispensable for the creation of blood cells in the bone marrow. It helps prevent anemia and is necessary for the functioning of the nervous system.

  • Nutritional requirements: 0.0005 mg / day

Some sources of vitamin B12 are:

  • carrot
  • tomato
  • dried fruit
  • u
  • Milk
  • fish
  • spinach
  • salad
  • Except for beer

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is needed for collagen synthesis, healing, Absorption of iron from plant sources and is also an antioxidant.

  • Nutritional requirements: 60-70 mg / day

Some sources of vitamin C are:

  • Kiwi
  • Cal
  • Orange
  • lemon
  • spinach
  • parsley
  • broccoli
  • strawberries
  • leek
  • Tomatoes

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is linked to sunbathing because it is obtained mainly by the action of ultraviolet rays. (Sunlight). Lack of this vitamin causes tooth decay and bone deformities. Therefore, its fundamental role is the mineralization of the bones, as it promotes the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus.

  • Nutritional requirements: 0.01 mg / day

Besides the solar importance in the acquisition of this protein, some sources of vitamin D are:

  • blue fish
  • Egg yolk
  • liver
  • or
  • mushrooms
  • Milk
  • yogurt

Vitamin E.

Vitamin E is an antioxidant involved in the protection of lipidsTherefore, it has a protective effect on cell membranes. In addition, it inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins.

  • Nutritional requirements: 0.08 mg / day

Some sources of vitamin E are:

  • vegetable oils
  • liver
  • dried fruit
  • coco
  • Soy
  • lawyers
  • Cal
  • fish
  • whole grains

Vitamin K

This vitamin is crucial for the synthesis of many coagulation factors, As it reacts with certain proteins in charge of the process. It does not need to be stored in large quantities because during its performance it regenerates itself.

  • Nutritional needs: 01.mg/day

Some sources of vitamin K are:

  • Alfalfa
  • Fish liver
  • cauliflower
  • Egg yolk
  • Soybean oil

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