Administration sciences: what they are, their characteristics and their functions

We live in an age where everything is increasingly measured and standardized, so we can optimize resources. Administrative sciences are a good example.

In this article, we will find out what they consist of, what characterizes them and what their use is today in a whole series of very different areas.

    What are the administrative sciences?

    The science or sciences of administration, also called the science of management, is the study which attempts to explain the forms of human organization linked to the world of work, Like companies, but also other administrative structures such as various types of associations and even much more extensive and complex networks such as local, regional, national or even supranational administrations (those which link several countries).

    In short, the object of study of administrative sciences are all the behaviors that human beings perform in this type of structure. In this way we will be able to know in a standardized way why a human system has been organized in a concrete way, what are the characteristics of this choice and what are the advantages that it brings compared to other different models for which they could have opted. .

    It is a scientific discipline, born neither more nor less from the same applied mathematics, since at the beginning we were looking for the optimal system, the one in which, once studied the variables involved, we obtained the values ​​that allowed maximum efficiency. and therefore the best results using the minimum level of resources possible, and all this based on statistical and therefore quantifiable decisions.

    Its origin is in the studies initiated for the investigation of operations, particularly relevant during the period of World War II., As they were looking for the best way to create strategies that would ensure maximum use of resources, so limited in the war scenario. It was then that mathematics came into play, as a means of objectifying procedures, in search of this efficiency through numbers.

    But the administrative sciences grew and developed more and more, so that today it is possible to apply these studies to practically any form of human organization, with the aim of finding the the most optimal way to carry out its management, whatever its nature. This is why one can find studies referring to the organization of a multinational company, a sports association or the municipal council of a municipality, because all are analyzable formations.

      Operating levels

      When we talk about administrative science, we have to keep in mind that it allows us to conduct research at different levels, especially three. Below we will describe each of them so that we can make a comparison and find out their differences.

      1. Fundamental

      The first level of research is the so-called fundamental, and it is which allows us to access the most basic data of the organization. These data are all those that can be quantified and processed using applied mathematics, and more precisely through three branches of this science, which are dynamical systems, optimization and probabilities. Thanks to these tools, we can organize all the information and perform a first level of analysis.

      2. Modeling

      Once we have all the data available and ready to work with it, we can move on to the second phase, which is modeling. At the moment, and be able to help us with IT tools, we will be able to create models that simulate different scenarios and thus be able to analyze and compare them, in search of the one that is the most optimal. for our organizational purposes. Unlike the previous level, the most important branches of mathematics here would be statistics and, by extension, econometrics.

      3. Application

      The last level, how could it be otherwise, would be that of the application itself. At this moment we go from theoretical levels, which were the previous ones, and which provided us with the information necessary to establish the lines of action, in practice, It would be to realize this model, in search of the results that we anticipated, always on the basis of data and mathematical processes, which are those which underlie the validity of the sciences of the administration.

      associated disciplines

      We have already seen that the sciences of administration have spread remarkably in a whole range of sectors, and have thus forged links with many disciplines, from which they drink to generate their knowledge of forms of management. Let us cite a few of the most notable.

      1. Human resources

      Logically, human resources are the basis of any business. We cannot expect an organization to function properly if we do not have good management of its human resources, both to add new members to the team and to deal with all questions relating to those already on it. This is why this branch could not be missing when we speak of administrative sciences.

      2. Accounting

      Accounting is another discipline that provides great information about the organization of the business, and is also purely digital, so its relationship with applied mathematics, which was originally the science of administration, is more than obvious. for that we must take into account the data provided by the study of the organization.

      3. Logistics

      Likewise, logistics are essential for making decisions that optimize the procedures carried out within a company in order to it will be essential to take them into account in order to develop a real study on the way in which this company is managed at all levels.

      4. Finances

      Administrative sciences are also nourished by the study of finance which, like accounting, is a discipline based on numbers and therefore quantitative, which facilitates the design of strategies in the search for optimization and maximum results with expenses. the weakest.

      5. Marketing

      We cannot understand today’s business organizations if we do not take into account all marketing issues., What are those that to a large extent keep a business successful or not taking off, no matter what product or service we offer. It is therefore another of the fundamental pillars of our search for absolute knowledge of human organizations.

      6. Entrepreneurship

      Entrepreneurship encompasses all issues related to the creation of new businesses, and therefore includes a series of fundamental knowledge to complete the map that constitutes the sciences of administration. It will help us to understand the process of creating an organization from its origin as a small company to its development as a large multinational, if the cycle is finished.

      7. Business strategy

      As with marketing, all business decisions about which strategies to follow can cause the company to take a successful course and achieve its goals or have difficulty maintaining its position in the market. Therefore, this whole body of knowledge must also be part of the administrative sciences.

      8. Information systems

      Information systems refer to all data interactions, in this case relating to the organization, which are shared through a hardware and software system, In addition to the people who handle this equipment. Without this information network, we could not design the business itself, so this is another of the disciplines we need to better understand this concept.

      9. Administration

      Business administration itself already encompasses many of the sectors we have described in the previous points, but their importance is so high that it deserves a separate mention. This collection of tasks is another of the sources that make up all the knowledge accumulated in the sciences of administration.

      10. Others

      Although some discipline regarding the organization of the company has not been mentioned in this list, it does not mean that it is not necessary for a better understanding of the concept that we are studying, as they all provide to a greater or lesser extent a series of data of great value to be able to us face this study. Therefore, any other variable affecting the business must be considered, even if they have not been mentioned here.

      Bibliographical references:

      • Anderson, DR, Sweeney, DJ, Williams, TA, Camm, JD, Cochran, JJ, Fry, MJ, Ohlmann, JW (2018). An introduction to the science of management: a quantitative approach. Cengage.
      • Dockner, EJ, Jorgensen, S., Van Long, N., Sorger, G. (2000). Differential games in economics and management sciences. Cambridge University Press.

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