Communication processes are an essential part not only in social relations, but at the organizational level, in the business context. Organizational communication helps to transmit and receive messages and to maintain group and work cohesion among workers.
This is why more and more companies are choosing to hire people to manage, stimulate and improve communication within the company. There are different types of organizational communication, Depending on certain settings. Let’s see what each of them consists of.
Communication inside and outside the company
Organizational communication is that communication that is given to companies, either through their employees or in relation to the organizational context. It includes all those messages, behaviors and attitudes that are emitted in the work context, in order to convey an idea, an objective, a task, etc. It also has to do with the identity of the company.
Thus, it is an essential part of any business, because through effective organizational communication it is possible to create a suitable working environment, as well as to keep all its members informed of the relevant issues, necessary to effectively develop the business of job.
This is why today it is very common to find a professional entirely dedicated to the development of this field, through the creation of strategies and the implementation of processes and tools that allow to facilitate a fluid communication between the workers. of the company.
In turn, these communication professionals also work on the image that the company projects externally, In society or in the commercial fabric (shaping your corporate identity, your “brand”); that is, they are responsible for managing the messages the company delivers and how it delivers them (whether through social media, advertising, etc.).
Types of organizational communication
Depending on the type of communication (in particular, the level of communication, whether inside or outside the company), there are two types of organizational communication: internal and external. Let’s find out what each one is, in addition to its subtypes:
1. Internal communication
The internal communication of a company is that which takes place within it, between its employees. this one this is done through meetings, press releases, welcome manuals, brochures, Etc. In turn, we find different types of internal organizational communication, depending on the classification parameters we use:
1. 1. According to its degree of formality
Depending on its character or typology (or degree of formality), internal organizational communication can be of two types: formal and informal.
Formal internal organizational communication it is made up of all these messages that are sent and received among the workers of the company, through official acts, such as meetings, assemblies … That is to say, it is a communication that has a more “official” character. “.
This is information that is usually recorded, through meeting minutes, for example. That’s why you can go there if you need to.
Informal internal organizational communication it is the one which has a less formal, less official character; that is, it encompasses situations of interaction between members of a company, when they are talking and exchanging messages or impressions during their break, for example.
This is usually oral communication; it is the one that promotes a good working environment.
1.2. According to the directionality of the information
Thus, internal communication can also be of three types, if we consider the criterion of the direction in which the flow of information follows: upward, downward and horizontal. In order for communication within a company to be effective and productive, these three types must be given: ascending, descending or horizontal.
The first of the types of internal organizational communication according to its directionality is the bottom-up one: it is the communication which is transmitted “from the bottom up”, that is to say, from workers (“workers”) to their department heads, sector heads and managers. In other words, it is the information communicated by the lower ranks to the middle and upper ranks (at the hierarchical level).
How does this type of communication take place? Through different channels and tools: meetings, suggestion forms, surveys, interviews, etc.
Downward internal communication is “downward”That is, from bosses or managers to their workers. That is to say that at the hierarchical level, it is the information transmitted by high-ranking workers to the middle and lower levels.
This is done through meetings, phone calls, letters, brochures, reports, speeches, instructions (oral or written), etc.
Finally, the third of the types of organizational communication according to its directionality is horizontal communication; this one occurs among colleagues of the same rank or hierarchical level (For example between department heads, sector heads, workers, etc.).
Like the previous ones, it can take different channels or routes; meetings, informal discussions with colleagues, calls, emails, etc. This type of communication helps promote cohesion between workers and equipment, improving their work and personal relationships.
2. External communication
The second of the types of organizational communication, depending on the level at which it occurs, is external communication; this encompasses the communication processes that take place to promote the company abroad.
It has more to do with advertising issues, the projected image of the company, social media, etc. It also allows to know the opinion of people outside the company, the company itself (that is to say what the company thinks).
Thus, an external communication is formed, in addition to advertising, press releases, press releases, brochures, etc.
There are three components or elements in any act of communication, in the different types of organizational communication. These three elements are part of communication; these are key elements that influence the whole process and allow the same to develop. We are talking about:
These are the people who communicate within the company, or who facilitate its communication processes (in external communication, for example). In the case of a human interaction process, it is clear that the characteristics of people will influence the act and process of communication (How information is transmitted, what information is selected, how it is received, etc.)
That is to say, it will influence the mood, personality, relations with colleagues (type, frequency, etc.) of the person, their rank or hierarchical level within the company, etc.
The content of any communication act they have to do with the objectives they seek to achieve by disseminating certain messages, As well as with the sender and the recipient thereof, the channels or communication channels used, etc. All of this will influence, like the previous component, in what is achieved with this act of communication and in the end result of this process.
Finally, the environment refers to the stage where communication takes place; that is to say in the organization itself, but also in its specific spaces (office, cafeteria, elevator, etc.). The environment is a component that influences and also affects communication, influencing the senders and recipients of messages, and vice versa (i.e. people can influence the environment as well).
- Hogg, M. (2010). Social psychology. Vaughan Graham M. Panamericana. Posted by Panamericana.
- Oliveras, EF (2017). Types of organizational communication in the company. P&A Group.