The human personality is one of the most difficult psychological constructs to describe. Some theories define it as the stable and distinctive characteristics of a person which are manifested in behavior.
Despite the complexity of its definition, there are a few evaluation tests that allow a psychological profile of the personality to be made very well adjusted to the subject’s reality. One of the most used is the MMPI-2, The operation that we will review throughout this article.
What is MMPI-2?
The Minnesota Multiphase Personality InventoryIn this particular case, the MMPI-2 is one of the most popular instruments in psychology to assess personality, general and specific psychopathological characteristics of the person, or psychosomatic disorders.
This latest version developed in 1989 from the original MMPI enjoys great popularity as it allows the mental health professional to make valid and reliable opinions or judgments about the personality of the patient. In the same way, allows the creation of a very complete psychological profile.
This inventory of personality constructions is made up of 567 dichotomous option items in which the person must choose between true or false depending on whether or not they identify with the statement.
The MMPI-2 gives us the opportunity to assess basic personality traits using a series of scales, Categorized as Basic or Additional. The basic scale consists of 370 items which are divided into validity scales and clinical scales. While the others make it possible to extend the information of the basic scales discriminating the content and the nature of the symptoms.
Finally, this test is considered a basic assessment tool, so it can be applied in all areas where an assessment of personality traits is needed. These administrative contexts include: psychological research centers and clinics, educational centers or military or defense contexts.
Features of this psychological test
The MMPI-2 has a number of distinctive features that make it the most used test to develop a psychological personality profile. These characteristics are given both at the level of administration, as well as of objectives and reliability.
As stated at the beginning of the article, the goal of MMPI-2 is to develop a psychological profile of the personality traits of the person being assessed. In addition to identifying possible psychopathological features, or abnormal personality traits.
This test can be performed both virtually and in a conventional manner (pencil and paper). She will need the MMPI-2 question protocol and the tabs with the answer grid. In addition, the answer key is required for the evaluation.
Inside the MMPI-2 test package are the standard instructions for its administration. The estimated time for the application of the test varies between 90 and 120 minutes, And should always be done in the presence of a psychologist or mental health professional. If possible, accompanied by a professional observer.
Due to the complexity of the test, the assessor should have read the material before using it. The person assessed will then receive the necessary materials and explain what the test consists of. Throughout this, the assessor can answer any questions that may arise for the assessor, as the MMPI-2 is more valid if it answers all the items.
After completing the test, you will proceed to the scoring step, where the assessor will assign one point for each affirmative or true response from the patient and 0 points in the boxes marked as false. In the end, all the points are added to obtain the raw score of the scale following which the T score will be obtained which will allow us to interpret the results of the test.
As mentioned above, the MMPI-2 it is made up of 567 elements arranged according to different rating scales. These scales are divided into basic scales, composed of validity scales and clinical scales, and additional scales.
1. Clinical scales
The purpose of these scales is to study the possible presence of psychopathological symptoms. In this scale are the following personality factors:
- Psychopathic deviation.
- Social introversion.
- Masculinity-Femininity (divided into women and men).
2. Validity scales
The validity scale allows us to detect whether there is an intentional lie or inconsistency in the respondent’s responses. This scale includes:
- L scale the lie.
- F scale or inconsistency or validity.
- K scale or correction or defense.
3. Additional ladders
In addition to the basic scales, and with the intention of expanding the information they provide, the assessor may use additional scales that measure concepts such as:
- Concern for health.
- Extravagant thought.
- antisocial behavior.
- Type A behavior.
- Social unrest.
- Labor problems.
- Labor interference.
- Negative treatment indicators that show whether the patient needs hospitalization or not.
How are the scores interpreted?
Depending on the T score obtained by the patient, the scales can be interpreted according to the following classification:
- T score <40: As a general rule, scores below 40 cannot be obtained, so it will be necessary to look at the score on the L scale to find out. whether the person intends to portray themselves well.
- T = 40-50: This corresponds to a very low score so it has no diagnostic significance. An L scale analysis should also be performed.
- T = 41-55: they belong to the expected score in the population so it has no diagnostic significance.
- T = 56-65: moderate diagnostic significance. Some of the scales will need to be revised to determine which personality traits stand out.
- T = 66-75: high diagnostic importance. From this score may appear pathological personality traits.
- T> 75: extremely high diagnostic importance. This only happens 10% of the time, so the possibility that the person is exaggerating or that it means a request for urgent help should be considered.