Why does each individual behave differently in different situations and contexts? How to explain that brothers raised in the same environment are so opposed to each other? In recent centuries, such questions about human personality have found some answers through research in the field of the psychology of individual differences.
In the study of the psychology of the personality, the well-known one like Model of the big five (in English, “Big Five”) it is a model in the study of personality that examines its structure from five major elements or personality traits (dimensions of personality). It is one of the most widely used theoretical bodies to define and measure the personality of each individual.
Personality traits: the big five
These building blocks have been reported in a study of individual descriptions of the personality of others (Goldberg, 1993), and is one of the most recognized role models of human personality.
The five major personality traits, also called main factors, Are usually given the following names: O factor (Openness to new experiences), factor C (Liability), factor I (extraversion), factor A (Kindness) I factor N (Neuroticism or emotional instability), thus forming the acronym “OCEAN“.
Each of the traits is made up of a set of more specific personality traits. For example, factor E (extraversion) includes specific qualities such as the pursuit of emotions, sociability or optimism.
The Big Five model he developed Raymond Cattell (In the photograph), aims to describe the personality, and professionals in psychology have provided new evidence and approaches over the years, different methodologies to analyze these personality traits of each individual.
The 5 personality factors
There is agreement among personality experts that personality can be classified into these 5 major traits that have been described in The Big Five Personality Trait Theory.
The definition of each of them is as follows:
(O factor): Openness to experience
Shows how well a subject he tends to seek new personal experiences and to design his future creatively. The person open to the experience maintains a fluid relationship with his imagination, appreciates art and aesthetics, and is consistent with his emotions and those of those around him. They prefer to break away from routine and often possess knowledge of general subjects due to their intellectual curiosity. Its opposite is the End of the experiment (Or for a change).
People who score low have more conventional interests. They value the simplicity rather than the complex, the ambivalent and the subtle. They often regard science or art as impractical disciplines. They prefer familiarity to novelty; they are moderate and attached to tradition.
(Factor C): Responsibility
Refers to the subject’s degree of focus on their goals, In addition to the discipline that it is to achieve thin fingers. You could say that the person with a high factor C score is an organized person, with the ability to concentrate, who completes tasks and who thinks before making a decision.
(Factor E): Extraversion
Defines the degree to which the subject he is open to others and channels his energy into social contexts. In other words, factor I examines how much a subject enjoys being around other people, how much he enjoys speaking in front of others, etc. Its opposite is Introversion, which is characterized by reserved, often labeled dislike people. They are generally independent, preferring routine and a family atmosphere.
They prefer to be alone and don’t like being part of people’s noises, which doesn’t mean they are less happy. They are often shown as alive as the most in circles close to friendship. They are more thoughtful than extroverts and are less prone to action.
(Factor A): kindness
is the person’s degree of respect, tolerance and calm. The kind person is one who trusts the honesty of others, has a vocation to help and help those in need, is humble and straightforward, and is empathetic towards the emotions and feelings of others.
(Factor N): Emotional stability
To define how well a person copes with complicated life situations. Calm subjects, reluctant to feel angry or angry, tend to stay animated and handle their personal crises very well.
In personality traits, the N factor is the one that we find with a high score in moderate and calm people.
- Cattell, RB, (1947). Confirmation and clarification of the main personality factors. Psychometrics, 12, 197-220.