Philosophy is the mother of all sciences. We deal with whatever specialty we are dealing with and whatever the subject of study, just as philosophical science is based on the search for truth and knowledge, or its practical application. Thus, it is common to often find concepts and perspectives from philosophical thought in scientific theories.
One of the best known and most important classical philosophers is SocratesWith contributions, they have contributed to the generation of different techniques and ways of thinking about the workings of the world and the mind. Let’s look at this article for some of Socrates’ major contributions to psychology.
Socrates, the philosopher
One of the greatest Greek philosophers (in fact, philosophers before him are sometimes referred to as pre-Socratic), Socrates was born in Athens in 470 BC, Midwife and sculptor father. Although the details of his life are doubtful, the various writings indicate that this humble family man possessed great ingenuity from childhood, training in various disciplines such as literature and music. His participation in different wars is known as an infantryman, like that from the Peloponnese, and who married a woman named Xantipa.
As for his thought as a philosopher, Socrates are distinguished by the focus of their attention on the field of morals and ethics. He believed that human beings strive for good and that all vice is the product of ignorance. He believed that kindness, love, kindness, and ethics were based on universal definitions. This position is opposed to the relativism advocated by the sophists. He also believed that the philosopher should seek wisdom in virtue, and that it is necessary to accomplish this in order to recognize his own ignorance.
He himself did not consider himself wise and believed that most people believed they knew more than they really knew. For that, he used irony and dialogue to denounce the contradictions of his interlocutors and let others see the level of knowledge they actually had.
In spite of believing in the existence of universal definitions it is considered a precursor of inductism, in the sense that it considered that the universal concepts had to obtain from simple to complex, from particular to general. Everyone must ask their own questions and forge their own way of seeing the world, by understanding more and more how it works.
too much his use of maieutics is famous, Which consists of answering other people’s questions with other questions so that the individual can work out his own answer.
This philosopher did not write or transcribe his thoughts considering that each individual must forge his own ideas. His work has reached us through the various disciples, and particularly through Plato, who reflected and deepened his work in some of the concepts stipulated by Socrates.
Socrates he was tried and sentenced to death by hemlock poisoning, Accused of corrupting the young and not accepting the divinities of the Athenians. He died in 470 BC
Socrates’ contributions to psychology
The progressive advancement of science and its pursuit of objectivity can make it difficult for many to observe the relationship between the current state of matter, in this case psychology and philosophy. However, Socrates’ contributions to both this science and others are of great value and importance. Here are some of those contributions.
1. Interest in the psyche
Socrates and his disciple Plato worked and reflected on the existence of the psyche, what they considered to be the soul. The influence of this fact on the current science of psychology is evident, its birth being the product of a reflection on the content of our minds derived from these authors and others.
2. Ethics and morals
Socrates focused his thinking on ethics and morality. The behavior of the individual in society and the formation of patterns of behavior, attitudes and values are some of the many aspects that psychology deals with.
3. Inductive method
Socrates is considered one of the forerunners in terms of creating the inductive method, claiming that people they had access to the knowledge of the truth through their experience instead of starting from assumed and given knowledge for good. This method is of great importance in turn in the generation of the scientific method, characterized by hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
4. Socratic method
Socratic dialogue it is a strategy based on the Maieutics of Socrates which is still used even today in the practice of psychology, being fundamental in multiple therapies. It is based on the execution of inductive questions: the therapist asks different questions in order to make the subject reflect and find his own answer to the question.
5. Precursor of constructivism
Constructivism is based on the creation of knowledge through the generation of shared knowledge which, in turn, depends on the subject’s ability to make sense of the material learned. Socrates considered that you had to learn not what to think, but how to do it. This consideration is linked to the search for constructivism that the student generates his own learning process, thanks to the application of the different supports offered by the medium. So, as Socrates proposed, the teacher must help the student to generate in order to create his own knowledge.
6. Use of irony: confrontation
Socrates was characterized by the use, in its dialectical method, irony. It aimed to show the subject that he considered himself wise about the contradictions that existed in his speech and to refute his biased arguments so that he was aware of his true level of knowledge.
In therapy it is sometimes used a similar strategy, The confrontation, In which the contradictions existing in his speech or between his speech and his behavior to make him aware of them are exposed to the subject.