The 12 biological differences between men and women

The different species that inhabit nature reproduce in different ways. One of them is sexual reproduction.

This type of reproduction requires the existence of differentiated structures allowing this reproduction, existing in a large number of species (including ours) of two different biological sexes. And in many of these two sexes show differences at the biological morphological level beyond the gonad. This is sexual dimorphism: each of the sexes of the same species has certain characteristics at the biological level.

Humans are among the species in which this dimorphism is observed. here are some the main biological differences between men and women.

    Main biological differences between men and women

    Originally, all human organisms began to develop with feminine characteristics for later either to begin to masculinize biologically due to the effect of certain hormones such as testosterone, or to continue this feminized development. In some cases, this masculinization does not occur at the full level, Or occurs in part despite a female sex karyotype.

    Whatever the case, once assigned chromosomal and biological sex the physical characteristics that will be developed in the fetus will be slightly different (Initially with few noticeable differences) and will cause the appearance of increasingly visible biological differences over the long term (especially from adolescence onwards due to hormonal changes). Here are some of the main biological differences between men and women.

    1. Chromosomal differences

    One of the biological differences between the two sexes, which actually causes the distinction between female and male, is found on the sex chromosomes. While the woman has two X chromosomes (i.e. XX), in humans there is an X chromosome and a Y chromosome (XY) which will generate, among other things, a differentiated synthesis of proteins and hormones.

    This difference also means that, as a general rule, men are more likely to suffer from genetic disorders related to the sex chromosomes, as women have two copies of the same chromosome, which can lead to not expressing the same problem.

    2. Hormonal differences

    Another of the best-known biological differences between men and women is the presence of different hormonal rhythms and the presence of different proportions of hormones depending on gender. For example, in men, testosterone levels are much higher than in women for most of their lives. in women, more estrogen is synthesized.

    This influences and causes the presence of specific physical and physiological characteristics in both sexes, visible especially at puberty and after puberty. Behavior is also affected, although it is also largely affected by education.

    Different hormonal rhythms also cause puberty alone to start earlier in women than in men.

      3. Neurological and brain differences

      The brain is one of the organs in which they can observe the differences between the two sexes. In general, the male brain can be up to 11% larger and have a higher proportion of white matter, while the female is generally denser and has a higher proportion of gray matter.

      There are more developed areas of the brain depending on gender: in women, the corpus callosum and splenium are usually larger, while areas such as the preoptic area of ​​the hypothalamus, amygdala, and parietal cortex are larger. large in humans. The suprachiasmatic nucleus also shows differences in shape in both sexes.

      Some of the brain and nerve circuits we use differ or connect differently depending on gender, such as regarding sexual stimulation or pain treatment. Likewise, the level of stimulation needed to elicit a physiological response in response to an emotional stimulus may differ, with less stimulation needed in a woman (although at the level of feeling there may be no difference).

        4. Genitals

        The organs with the greatest sexual dimorphism since birth are the genitals, Present to each sex a type of gonads and reproductive system.

        5. Hirsutism

        The action of hormones causes a greater amount of hair to appear in men than in women, both on the face and on the rest of the body.

        6. Weight, height and bone and muscle mass

        One of the most well-known differences between men and women is the different development of muscles and bones. Usually in our species man generally has greater development in both aspects and have more weight, size and strength.

        7. Fat distribution

        The metabolism also shows some differences at the biological level. The action of hormones such as estrogen they make that, after being nourished, the woman stores to store more body fat and makes it difficult to consume these. This is why it is more complicated for a woman to lose weight or to build muscle mass than for a man.

        8. Skin and sweat glands

        A woman’s skin tends to be thinner and drier, while a man’s skin is generally thicker. In addition, the male has a greater number of sweat glands, so he sweats in greater numbers than the female.

        9. Management of blood circulation and body temperature

        Generally, blood circulation and the ability to maintain body temperature also differ between men and women. while the circulation of the blood of the man along his body is relatively proportional between the different areas, in women, the blood flow to the torso and abdomen is more important. This is why they may have greater resistance to hypothermia, although they tend to have more difficulty maintaining heat in distal areas of the body.

        10. Mouth and larynx

        On average, women tend to have smaller teeth than men. In addition, the action of androgens and testosterone during puberty makes men’s voices harsh in general and that of women a little sharper. Although it is present in both sexes, it is also typical of humans that the neck nut is visible (but not in all cases).

        11. Heart and lungs

        On average, these organs tend to be larger in men. It also helps them have greater muscle strength and endurance.

          12. Sensory perception

          There are also biological differences that can be the cause. In general, men tend to have better visual acuity, while women have better hearing and smell.

          In terms of vision, women tend to have better color perception (there are women who have up to four types of cones) and have greater angular vision and better perception in the dark regardless of the fact that it has less sharpness, while the human in addition to the latter generally captures better depth and distance. And despite lower hearing acuity, humans are easier to locate the sound source.

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