The 14 types of defects and their characteristics

Addictions are generally associated with addictions, both to substances such as tobacco or alcohol and to specific behaviors, such as sex or video games.

Drug addiction generally has an emotional, psychological and cognitive component and generally involves a social, health, relationship, professional and even economic impact.

It goes without saying that there are very different types of defects, some of which do not fall under what might be considered harmful. Then let’s find out about the most famous types of defects.

    What do we mean by vices?

    There are many types of vices, because, to begin with, a lot depends on what we mean by a defect. A vice is usually some kind of flaw, lack, or bad habit that usually rubs the line between the moral and the immoral or the good and the bad. Since morality and correctness are aspects strongly dependent on the socio-cultural contextIt is understandable that what is considered a defect in one culture is not in another.

    Generally, vices involve a transgression of social norms and are often associated with crime and danger. These behaviors can result in harm to the person performing them and can also harm their immediate environment. For example, the use of substances such as marijuana or alcohol leads to harm at the individual level, especially at the biological level, but also it can cause aggressive behavior around you.

    In English, there is a term more or less similar to the Spanish word “vice”: vice. This word is used in Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence to refer to minor criminal acts, such as prostitution, gambling, debauchery and obscenity. This idea of ​​vice has a lot to do with a Christian perspective whose conducts are moral and which are not, especially those which involve the realization of some of the deadly sins.

    To finish, in popular parlance we speak of vices in those activities that we do too often and with great enthusiasm, Although this does not necessarily imply direct damage to ourselves or around us For example, we can say that we are used to dancing, eating ice cream, playing chess, gardening …

    The most common types of defects

    Below we will see the different types of vices that exist and which are the most representative of each group.

    Vices and addictions

    In many cases, the word “vice” refers to addictions, both in substance and in behavior. These defects cause damage to health of varying severity and, being addictions, they are considered psychological problemsSo, no matter how much moral transgression they may be, they must be dealt with with the clear purpose of healing the person.

    1. Addiction to pills and other drugs

    One of the most serious addictions is addiction to pills and other drugs, whether legal or not. Among these drugs we can find substances such as bath salts, cocaine, crack, ecstasy and ketamine, but there are also legal pills such as the wide range of drugs that can be found on the market.

    Being a type of vice in which drugs of a wide variety of legalities are included, its consumption can be perceived as moral or amoral depending on what the pill is. For example, addiction to pain relievers is not considered to be as transgressive as heroin use.

    2. Alcoholism

    Alcoholism is the dependence on alcohol that involves a series of behavioral and organic changes, seriously damaging the physical and psychological health of the individual. Alcoholics cannot help but consume their favorite alcoholic beverages, and with each consumption the harmful effects on their bodies are accentuated.

    This dependence is progressive, because the person will need more and more of the substance in order to be able to feel the pleasant effects which alcohol offers to him in the short term. You will feel that you are in control of what you consume and that you only need a little alcohol to “get in tune”, but you will already start to exhibit cognitive problems.

    3. Ludopathy

    Gambling addiction is the name given to gambling addictionLike roulette, blackjack, slot machines and, surprisingly, the lottery. In most cases, these are games that can be found in casinos, places where huge sums of money are put.

    People addicted to gambling think that they are in control of what they bet on or that sooner or later the Goddess Fortune will give them joy. The problem is, luck is finicky, and the odds of winning are always against you.So, they end up losing a lot of money and suffer serious financial problems.

    4. Smoke

    Smoking is a tobacco addiction and one of the most socially accepted, so it is not surprising that it is also the most common vice. Although tobacco ads are virtually banned and young people are no longer bombarded with messages to use them, the truth is that few young people smoke to date.

    Although there have been attempts to raise awareness of the risks of smoking and the damage it entails, particularly to the heart and respiratory system, increasing the risk of developing cancer, the truth is that it seems that young people continue to be attracted to this viceIf they come, the e-cigarette format is gaining popularity.

    Whether it’s because they see it as an act of rebellion or because they want to be one of the smokers, often considered the coolest, tobacco is the most common addiction.

    5. Vice for new technologies

    The development of new technologies has made people more connected than ever. These devices allow for quick and easy communication, bringing people together who may be physically far apart.

    But not everything is an advantage, as the Internet, video games and cell phones have become dangerous addictions among young people in the 21st century.

    Whether it’s playing online games, texting, checking social media, or being on the internet all day watching kitten videos, addiction to new technologies is a real problem.

    People may come to prioritize being constantly informed and not losing anything before meeting their school, work and family obligations.

    In addition, the Internet is not harmless. It is through this telecommunication that the transmission of “fake news” and critical comments with the appearance or hobbies of people under anonymous profiles has been encouraged, which has reduced self-esteem and misinformation. .

    6. Vice at work

    There is no doubt that work is necessary to survive. However, there are many people who end up developing a work addiction, prioritize achieving all work goals before paying attention to your family or your own well-being.

    Work addiction has been called both “workaholic” and “karachi” (in Japanese for “death from overwork”) and can seriously damage a person’s health because they don’t like what is happening in the process. working: his own life.

    7. Sex addiction

    Sex addiction, also known as sex addiction, hypersexuality, or nymphomania is the behavior sexual seeking caused by an insatiable urge to have sex.

    This great sexual urge, depending on its severity, can be considered a simple vice that is slightly detrimental to a serious psychological disorder to be treated. The nymphomaniac can endanger his health by not taking the appropriate prophylactic measures.

    8. Vice for sport

    Exercising is healthy, as long as it is done within limits of what is deemed desirable and which we are not obsessed with. Sport is considered a vice when exercising such a long day that obligations are canceled.

    People are doing so much physical activity that, far from gaining muscle mass or being in better health, they start to wear down their joints and suffer bone damage, such as their knees or feet.

    This obsession can go as far as forcing the person to follow an extremely strict diet, preventing them from going out with friends for a beer or going out to dinner because you don’t want to eat anything that is not what you have been forced to. eat.

      Vices of the will

      In legal language, we would speak of vices of will to an involuntary action carried out in a criminal context. These are certain conditions that prevent the person who has committed a crime from being tried as if they were fully aware or free to do what they did, but not without receiving some sanction.

      1. Ignorance or error

      We understand by ignorance or error as vices of will the fact that a person committed an action but did not know what consequences it would imply.. Yes, she will be judged, but not being fully aware of what she was doing will be different.

      2. Dolo

      Mourning refers to the faking, concealment or deception by one of the parties involved in the commission of a crime. The person did not take an action on purpose, but was deceived.

      3. Violence or intimidation

      Acts carried out under the threat of violence or intimidation involve the fear in the person of suffering some sort of punishment or dishonor, and action on the victim resulting from the intimidating action of his aggressor would not be considered. as a volunteer.

      Vice and virtue

      Vices of virtue are behaviors considered to be socially negative or immoral, whether or not they involve real harm to the person performing them or to their environment.

      They may or may not be crimes depending on the legal code of each countryBut what there is no doubt is that they involve a certain transgression of the social norms of this culture.

      A virtue, for example, is a personality trait considered desirable in the context of society, such as being selfless or kind. Also included in this definition are sins, considered to be those personal traits or behaviors that take us away from the desires of religion, or that prevent us from having guaranteed salvation.

      In the case of Christianity, the theological virtues are three in number: hope, faith and charity. Sins are pride, greed, lust, anger, throat, envy, and laziness. Other virtues would be responsibility, generosity, honesty and punctuality, which although not necessarily sins, their transgression can, in the context of every culture, be seen as vicious behavior.

      Language defects

      As strange as it may sound, the word vice is also used to refer to linguistic phenomena which contradict grammatical standards or hinder understanding between speakers., Written and oral. Some of these linguistic defects are as follows.

      1. Pleonasm

      A pleonasm is use of redundant words in the same sentence, As would be the following: “Today I’m going to John’s house to deliver John’s scooter to John because John gave it to me yesterday and hadn’t returned it to John yet.”

      This same information could be conveyed with a less redundant sentence: “today, I am going to go to Joan to give him the scooter he gave me yesterday and I had not yet returned”.

      2. Apocope

      The apocope is the elision of a few letters of a word to gain speed or sound. It can be presented dialectally, although in theory this is not a defect of the language itself but rather a sample of intralinguistic diversity.

      We would speak of a grammatically incorrect case of apocope, for example by saying “first” instead of “first” when the noun is feminine. For example: “this is the first time that I am doing this” instead of saying “this is the first time that I am doing this”

      3.quism and deceism

      Queism and dequeism are two widespread vices of language. The two phenomena consist the subtraction (queism) or unnecessary addition (dequeism) of the grammatical particle “of” in certain types of sentences.

      For example, a case of deceit would be “I’m glad this athlete retired” instead of “I’m glad this athlete retired”. On the other hand, we would speak of deceism in the following sentence “He told me to come to his house”. instead of saying “he told me to come to his place”.

      Bibliographical references:

      • Little, Philippa (2003). Virtues and Vices: and other essays on moral philosophy. United States: Oxford University Press.
      • Lewis, CS (2005). Virtue and vice: a dictionary of the good life. United States: HarperOne.
      • Hess, Kären M .; Orthmann, Christine Hess (2008). Introduction to law enforcement and criminal justice. Belmont, Calif .: Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0-495-39090-9.

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