The 5 types of bullying

Bullying is a term that has grown in popularity over the past few years, however this phenomenon has existed since man has existed. Now, what exactly do we mean by bullying or bullying? This Anglo-Saxon word is frequently used to refer to typical class thugs. In other words, the aggressors, whether physically or psychologically.

Bullying is a phenomenon that is characterized by harassment and / or intimidation of the aggressor on the victim, in the school environment. The bully likes to feel superior to the bully and rejoices in the bully’s suffering. Repeated exposure of this condition by the victim can lead to serious psychological consequences. In some cases, bullied students can even kill themselves.

  • Harassment in the workplace is called bullying. You can find out more about this phenomenon in our article: “Mobbing: psychological harassment at work”

The causes of school bullying

Bullying is a phenomenon that can occur for different reasons (personal, family or school), and therefore can occur in any school: whether private or public. Regarding school causes, there appears to be a higher risk of bullying in large schools than in small ones, Due to the difficulty in monitoring the former.

A personal cause could be, for example, the bully’s low self-esteem. One way to compensate for the lack of self-confidence is feeling superior to the bully. When it comes to family causes, the source of bullying child abuse could be found in the aggressive parenting model. In addition, the economic tension, the bad relationship between the parents, the acquired values, the absence of rules of coexistence, etc. could be probable causes of the development of this phenomenon.

Consequences and effects

Victims of bullying at school they can suffer from different negative psychological effects.

Research conducted in 2014 at King’s College London found that the negative psychological effects experienced by bullied people persist for 40 years after being bullied.

this it should make us think about the serious psychological impact of harassment on the rest of the life of the person concerned, Showing worse indicators of their mental and physical health and poorer cognitive performance in people who were not harassed.

Let’s take a look at the negative physical and mental health effects detected in bullying victims.

1. Stress

Victims of school bullying experience stress not only during the school season, but also years later. This emerges from a study conducted at Tufts University which found that those affected secrete more cortisol, a hormone directly involved in feeling stressed.

This would explain a large part of the long-term consequences on the health of these people, such as the onset of mental disorders, as shown in a study from Johns Hopkins University.

2. Anxiety and depression

Another research, in this case from Duke University, found that victims of harassment were more likely to suffer from disorders such as agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder and panic attacks. They also had higher rates of depression and social isolation.

3. Somatizations

They may also have psychosomatic disorders. This was detected in a report published by Randy and Lori Sansone in 2008.

4. Suicide

In the same study conducted at Duke, a higher likelihood of suicide was found in these people. The first suicide victim of bullying was that of young Spaniard Jokin, who at the age of 14 decided to end his life after spending years suffering abuse and harassment in his school in the city of Hondarribia.

5. Problems of socialization and the future of work

Victims of bullying at school have, statistically, poorer indicators in terms of the quality of family life and purchasing power in adulthood. They may also experience worse performance in their social and communication skills, as shown in this study by Claire Fox and Michael Boulton published in the British Psychological Society.

Types of bullying

But what kind of school bullying do you have? According to the National Center Against Bullying (NCAB) bullying can be classified as follows according to different criteria.

1. Verbal bullying


Verbal bullying or verbal bullying in school is characterized by the bully expressing cruel words, insults, threats, Intimidation, jokes and exclusion of sentences about the victim’s appearance, sexual condition, ethnicity, race or disability. Children are more sensitive to these comments.

Example: When a child says to another child: “You are very, very fat, just like your mother.”

How to detect it?

Children who experience this type of bullying may be absent, cranky, or show a change in appetite. They can also say something about what they have been told and ask if it is true.

2. Physical intimidation


Physical bullying is characterized by aggressive and intimidating behavior on the part of the bully, This includes kicks, punches, kicks, blocks or pushes. It is the most well-known form of bullying.

Example: A child is bullied by another child who pulls his pants down in the yard

How to detect it?

Unfortunately, many children do not tell their parents what happened. But parents can detect if their child is suffering from physical bullying because this type of bullying usually leaves marks on the victim’s body, Which sends an alarm signal. Some of these body marks are: cuts, bruises, broken clothes, etc. In addition, the victim may frequently complain of headaches or stomach aches.

3. Social or relational bullying


This type of bullying is more complicated to detect and usually occurs behind the victim’s back. The goal is usually that the person does not join or be part of a group. Whether in the dining room, at recreational football games, or in any social or educational activity at the center, the victim is looked down upon or disowned by their peers.

Example: A group of girls in a gym class take their photos of a party that one of the girls in the class was not invited to, and being present, they treat her like she is invisible.

How to detect it?

It is common for the victim to show mood swings, avoid peer groups, and be alone more than usual.. Girls are more likely to suffer from this type of bullying. The emotional pain produced by social bullying can be just as intense as that experienced by physical bullying, and the aftereffects can last even longer.

4. Cyberbullying


Cyberbullying is a phenomenon born out of the rise of social media. It is characterized by the harassment or bullying produced by social media, text messages and emails. Through the digital medium, the bully spreads false rumors, lies, threats, sexist or racist comments, causing enormous discomfort and psychological and emotional problems in the victim.

Example: When a guy tweets or posts a status on Facebook, “Ramon is a loser. How is it possible that he has a girlfriend? Surely his girlfriend only wants him for the money.”

How to detect it?

The a victim of cyberbullying can spend a lot of time online and feel sad and anxious afterwards.. Additionally, the person who suffers from this type of bullying (and any form of school bullying) may have trouble sleeping, and may even beg not to go to school, absent from activities they previously enjoyed.

5. Carnal harassment


This type of bullying is perhaps the most complicated to analyze, as many people refuse to accept that there are children who engage in this type of behavior. That kind of bullying at school is characterized by sexist or obscene comments, to touch the victim in private places or to make the victim do something they do not want (For example, watching adult movies). This type of bullying can cause serious psychological problems and forever mark the intimate and emotional relationships of the victim.

Example: A boy in class forces a girl to kiss him several times.

How to detect it?

As a rule, the victim of this type of harassment will not express what is happening to them, however avoiding situations where you might encounter the bully. For example, not going to school.

The diversity of violence in schools

The existence of different types of bullying shows us how actions aimed at harming or attacking others can take different forms. Therefore, it is the responsibility of adults and caregivers to detect these forms of physical or psychological violence and to curb them, focusing on the needs of the victims.

It is essential that stereotypes about what is and what is not violence are not used as an excuse to make invisible and normalize unacceptable behaviors which, although they are not linked to beatings or injuries, leave psychological traces that can affect the quality of life of boys and girls. for years.

Bibliographical references:

  • De Acevedo, A. (2010). Someone is bothering me: bullying. Editions B.
  • Barri, F. (2006). SOS Bullying: preventing bullying and improving coexistence. Praxis, SA
  • Norman KJ, Seiden JA, Klickstein JA, Han X., Hwa .LS., Et al. (2015). Social stress and drug self-administration in mice I. Alcohol and corticosterone. Psychopharmacology.
  • Ricou Sanz, J. (2005). Intimidation. RD editors.

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