The 8 branches of philosophy (and its main thinkers)

Philosophy is one of the most difficult areas of knowledge to define. This means that, throughout history, many thinkers have wanted to put words to this abstract concept.

Maybe less difficult is it delimit the different branches of philosophy because, by making more concrete what each one has to do, to have a better global vision as much of this discipline as of the philosophers who devote themselves to it.

    Main branches of philosophy

    Since everything we think we know can be called into question in a thousand different ways, and any sort of belief that we have, however ingrained, is in danger in the face of philosophy, it is interesting to know what are the different facets of the philosophers. can help us learn, leaving ideas out of date.

    Below we will review the different branches of philosophy, Which as a whole testify to the extent to which this is a varied and prolific activity, as well as to the different thinkers who stood out in each of them.

    1. Epistemology

    Epistemology focuses on the study of how human beings generate knowledge from our thoughts and our relationship with the environment.

    It is a question of examining both the validity of the conclusions which we arrive by taking into account both the initial data and the methodology used, but also of considering the social and historical context in which the assumptions and questions arise. which must be answered.

    Epistemology has been around for many centuries, since the Renaissance, and among its most famous representatives are historical figures such as René Descartes, David Hume and John Locke.

      2. Philosophy of logic

      Philosophers belonging to this domain they are engaged in the study of logical systems, Their qualities and their consistency, as well as the way in which they make it possible to extract knowledge. On the other hand, this field of philosophical research also reflects on the nature and the anthology of logical operations: are they part of nature, or are they only a human construction, for example?

      In addition, he currently maintains a close relationship with the fields of computer engineering.

      Kurt Gödel, Aristotle and Charles Sanders Peirce are among the thinkers who have excelled in this discipline.

      3. Ethics

      Ethics is the branch of philosophy which is responsible for examining the means by which we can establish what is morally correct and what is not. Virtually everyone acts on an ethic, but very few are systematically asked questions to examine how correct their scales of values ​​and application of morals are.

      Among the unknowns that ethics tries to solve is the question of whether universal morality exists or whether morality is only a product of human creation of the historical development and contexts that unfold in our path.

      Socrates, Plato or Thomas Aquinas are examples of such philosophers.

        4. Aesthetics

        This is the branch of philosophy on which he focuses the study of the perception of beauty, Inside and outside the forms of expression of art, and whether it is a visual perception or not. Although they did not devote themselves solely to this branch, Martin Heidegger, Plato and Denis Diderot worked in this field.

        5. Philosophy of science

        It is the branch of philosophy that is responsible for examining both the nature of science and the extent to which it is applied in practice to obtain valid and reliable knowledge.

        Its appearance dates back to the late 1920s, when was born from the epistemology of the Vienna Circle. Among the most prominent thinkers in this field are Rudolf Carnap, Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn.

        6. Ontology

        Ontology is the branch of philosophy devoted to the study of the existence of phenomena. It involves not only asking why it exists and why it does not, but also consider which way things are: Is a crocodile the same as the concept of the dragon, feeling that the latter only exists in fiction?

        Some of the philosophers who stood out in this area were Plato, Aristotle, Georg Hegel, Gottfried Leibniz, and George Berkeley.

        7. Political philosophy

        Thinkers dedicated to this tradition are engaged in reflection and research on the concepts and the logic behind political ideologies, social movements and the value systems that underpin political and economic proposals.

        Montesquieu, Adam Smith, Max Stirner, Karl Marx, Simone de Beauvoir or Thomas Hobbes are among the most important thinkers in this branch.

        8. Philosophy of language

        This branch of philosophy focuses its research on the nature of language and the type of information exchange that takes place through its daily or institutional use. In addition, it can support scientific intrigues devoted to understanding our use of language in practice.

        An example of a question to be answered by philosophers in this area is whether there is a direct relationship between signifier and meaning, and how verbalizable concepts are created.

        Ferdinand de Saussure or Ludwig Wittgenstein are examples of thinkers who have taken an interest in this field.

        Bibliographical references:

        • Benton, M. (2017). Personalized epistemology. The Philosophical Quarterly. 67 (269): pages 813 to 834.
        • Bunge, M. (2000). Scientific Research. Mexico City: 21st century.
        • Cher, P. (2007). The scientific revolution. Madrid: History of Marcial Pons.
        • Popper, K. (1983). Conjectures and rebuttals: the development of scientific knowledge. Barcelona: Paidós.
        • Quine, WVO (2004). Philosophy of logic. Harvard: Harvard University Press.

        Leave a Comment