Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung are the two authors who have had the greatest influence on the development of the psychodynamic model; in fact, disagreements between the two authors shaped the evolution of this paradigm during the twentieth century. In this article we will analyze 8 differences between Freud’s psychoanalysis and Jung’s analytical psychology.
Psychoanalysis and Analytical Psychology
The famous Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) founded the discipline he called “psychoanalysis”. this author emphasized the importance of unconscious processes and from development in childhood to determining behavior, as well as analyzing involuntary acts (such as dreams) to raise awareness of these aspects.
One of its most prominent students was Carl Jung (1875-1961). Although Freud believed he was going to be his heir, Jung explicitly showed his opposition to some of the key aspects of psychoanalytic theoryIn particular, their excessive emphasis on sexuality and lack of interest in individual differences and their influence on treatment.
If it is undeniable that psychoanalysis would not have existed without Freud, the influence of Jung on the following generations was enormous; not only has his critique of the master been supported by a large number of psychodynamic therapists, but his model of therapy is probably more widely used today than that of Freudian psychoanalysis.
The differences between Freud and Jung
There are many differences between Freud’s and Jung’s theory, And of course, this also translates into the therapeutic methods that each one promoted. Below, we’ll go over some of the more notable ones, which encompass aspects such as sexuality, conception of development, or the relative influence they give to inheritance and environment.
1. Personal and collective unconscious
While Freud was of the opinion that the unconscious is specific to each person as it develops based on early experiences, Jung described more a collective unconscious that is transmitted by genetic inheritance and it would be made up of archetypes, primordial images that all human beings share.
2. Sexuality and libido
For Jung, the concept of libido was not primarily sexual in nature, but was used to refer to any type of psychic energy. Sure the same lines, psychological processes would not be determined solely by sexual impulses but also by various others.
However Freud, who popularized the term, broadened his conception of libido as he developed his work; thus, although he first considered all libidinal energy to be in turn sexual, in his last stage he distinguished between the drives of life, including the sexual drives, and those of the dead.
3. The death drive
Freud adopted the concept of the “death drive” or “Thanatos” as opposed to the life drive or Eros. This is a tendency towards death and self-destruction which contradicts itself, by coexisting, with the impulses of survival, sex and creation. For Jung, psychic energy has a non-specific character, so he didn’t agree with the idea.
4. Development and its stages
The Freudian model of psychosexual developmental stages is extremely well known, concluding with the arrival of the genital stage at puberty. Jung, for his part, considers that personality development is not limited to childhood but can continue throughout life; in this sense, he used the concept of “individuation process”.
5. Complexes of Oedipus and Electra
According to Freud’s theory, between the ages of 3 and 5, children develop ambivalent feelings (typical of the combination of life and death drives) towards the parent of the same sex. Jung proposed the existence of the Electra complex, which would consist of daughters’ rivalry with their mothers for the sake of the father, In front of the male Oedipus.
6. Design of psychotherapy
Jung’s therapy is largely based on his idea of the collective unconscious, which Freud rejected, and is more suited to the needs of each individual than Freud’s therapeutic model, psychoanalytic-type care, which in its classic version was weighed down. by an excess of rigidity.
On another side, the goal of psychoanalysis is the resolution of deep emotional disturbances through reprocessing of traumatic experiences, and that of Jungian analytic therapy is to bring the patient back to freedom and spontaneity, as well as to bring together behavior and self-image to reach the “real self”.
7. Interpretation of dreams
Jung considered that the type of dream analysis Freud performed was too restrictive and too focused on sexuality. For this author, dream symbols could not be interpreted by fixed rules, but the outside world of the person as well as the inside had to be taken into account.
8. Vision of parapsychology
One of the most singular points of conflict between Freud and Jung concerns his conception of the paranormal. Jung developed the theory of synchronicityAccording to what causal relationships between seemingly unrelated physical and psychological phenomena can occur; Freud considered that such ideas did not deserve any consideration.