Types of sexism: the different forms of discrimination

Although human societies have made great strides in terms of equality, there are still deep-rooted forms of discrimination between virtually all cultures. Sexism is one of those discriminatory practicess, and exists in both actions and thoughts.

However, this is not always easy to recognize. It is often camouflaged in an alternative way, or it is expressed in attitudes so widespread and supposed that it is difficult to see them as such. That’s why it’s important know the different types of sexism and how they can be found in everyday life.

    What is sexism?

    Before we move on to see their types, we need to have a clear idea of ​​what sexism is and how it shapes itself through what we do.

    A definition could be as follows: sexism is a type of discrimination based on biological sex or gender of people.

      Types of sexism

      There is no single criterion for proposing a categorization of the different types of sexism., Which means that there are several possible classifications according to different criteria.

      For example, we can look at who is targeting sexism or focus our attention on how it is expressed.

      According to whom it is addressed

      Depending on the type of person to whom sexism is applied, it can take the following forms:

      against women

      This type of sexism is very common and targets people of biological sex. matches their gender identity (female).

      against transsexuals

      This form of sexism applies to the gender identity of people it does not match their biological sex. This is especially serious, as these discriminatory attacks add to the anxiety and emotional pain that in itself produces gender dysphoria, a psychological phenomenon that occurs in some transgender people and which you can read more about. in this article: the wrong body. “

      Sexism against intersex people

      It is one of the less common types of sexism, as intersex people are relatively few in number. intersex it is a discrepancy between the conception of the genitals and the chromosome load who is possessed (XX or XY). This ambiguity about a person’s gender leads to rejection in many cultures, including Western ones.

      Against men

      This kind of sexism is closely related to the concept of misandryIn other words, aversion to men in general.

      Depending on how sexism is expressed

      If previously we saw a classification of types of sexism according to their content, now we move on to their forms.

      Hostile sexism

      Hostile-type sexism is embodied in attitudes and actions based on hostility, aggression and physical or symbolic violence. For example, beating someone for their gender is a clear form of such sexism.

      Some subtypes of this class of sexism are:

      • By transgression of the domestic: Sexism based on the refusal of women to access the public part of society, that is to say what is beyond domestic and reproductive tasks.
      • For sexual reasons: Through this we are trying to violate the way we experience our own sexuality.

      Benevolent sexism

      It is one of the most unnoticed types of sexism, as can be seen from acts that they could be understood as kindness initiatives.

      For example, explaining a very basic subject to someone as if they had no way of understanding more elaborate speeches may be sexism, the interlocutor is a woman, the female gender traditionally being excluded from intellectual tasks.

      In the same way, going to the aid of women so that they do not have to make physical effort can also be a framed act is this type of sexism, if it is done in a systematic and generalized way.

      normative sexism

      This type of sexism is not expressed by violence either, but it has nothing to do with apparent kindness or condescension. These are actions which, by their forms, they tacitly express an affirmation in traditional gender roles without any justification other than custom.

      For example, asking a woman when she is considering finding a husband to support her is an example of this type of sexism.

      This kind of sexism is often supported by an essentialist view of biology applied to human beings. For example, it is understood that since females and females of most species of mammals are historically more involved in reproduction than males and males, there is some kind of connection between the female and the care of the young.

      However, this prospect not by reductionist and biologist it’s more scientific. If this had been the case, for example, it would not have been the case for millions of women to start leaving their homes to pursue tasks that go beyond the domestic and domestic framework, as has happened in less than 20 years. a century in Western societies.

      Tributes

      Manslaughter is a very specific form of sexism that brings together elements of the previous two, as there is both condescension and a desire to deny others the ability to participate in a relationship of equals.

      It is about minimizing the opinions of another person (Female or unidentified with male gender) and present theirs as if it were a description of reality posed in a way that is easy for everyone to understand.

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