Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543) was a prominent Polish Renaissance scientist and astronomer to whom we owe many contributions in this discipline.
Among his most notable achievements is the formulation of the heliocentric theory, which explained that the center of the universe is not the Earth, as we thought, but the Sun.
Great phrases of Nicolas Copernicus
He studied in Krakow and Rome until he was considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of his time.
In today’s article let us know the theories, thoughts and phrases of Copernicus, One of the most important thinkers of our millennium.
1. Nature never does anything superfluous, nothing useless and knows how to draw multiple effects from the same cause.
About the majestic complexity of the natural world.
2. I’m not so in love with my own opinions as I ignore what others might think.
His humble and dialogical personality is reflected in this sentence.
3. If by chance there are charlatans who, despite ignoring all mathematics, boasting of a judgment on them by some passage of the Scriptures, maliciously distorted in their sense, would dare to reject and attack this structuring of mine. , I pay them no attention, to the point that I will condemn their opinion as reckless.
Point out the east to their detractors.
4. Knowing that we know what we know and knowing that we don’t know what we don’t know is real knowledge.
Great reflection on what is known and what is known which is not known.
5. First, we need to know that the universe is spherical.
A maxim that was not known at the time.
6. The ocean surrounds the Earth and fills its deepest abysses.
Geographic cut reflection.
7. Sitting on a royal throne, the Sun rules the family of planets that revolve around it.
A great metaphor for understanding the role of the Sun in our solar system.
8. In the middle of everything is the sun. So who in this beautiful temple would put that light in another better place, from where all could be born?
Another ode to the king of the stars.
9. The movement of the Earth alone is enough to explain so many apparent inequalities in the sky.
The speed at which the Earth is moving is absolutely amazing.
10. Mathematics is for mathematicians.
Think about this exact science.
11. The earth with its surrounding waters must, in fact, have a form such as that revealed by its shadow, for it eclipses the moon with the perfect arc of a circle.
Poetic astronomical phrase.
12. Also, since the sun remains stationary, what appears to be the movement of the sun is actually more due to the movement of the earth.
About the movement of each of the planets and stars.
13. Let no one expect anything certain from astronomy, for nothing true offers us; if in abandoning this discipline one takes for granted what has been done for another use, he will end up going crazier than committing to it.
A phrase from Copernicus on astronomical science.
14. Near the sun is the center of the universe.
Over the years, it seems that Copernicus got this statement wrong.
15. Of all visible things, the highest is the sky of fixed stars.
Light years from our eyes.
16. The things I say may now be dark, but they will be clarified in their place.
Certainly, many of Copernicus’ teachings were confirmed over the following centuries.
17. Know the mighty works of God, understand his wisdom, majesty and power; to appreciate, in degree, the marvelous functioning of its laws, all this must certainly be a mode of worship pleasing and acceptable to the Most High, for whom ignorance cannot be more grateful than knowledge.
About his believing side.
18. Every light has its shadow and every shadow has a morning.
Philosophical phrase from the great Nicolas Copernicus.
19. The Universe was forged for us by an extremely good and ordered Creator.
Another reflection on God.
20. Trismegistus calls him a “visible God”; Sophocles’ Electra, “that which contemplates all things”. And so the sun, as if it rests on a royal throne, rules the family of stars which revolve around it.
About the sun.
21. Nations are not ruined by a single act of violence, but gradually and almost imperceptibly by the depreciation of their currency in circulation, by their excessive amount.
22. The massive mass of the earth is in fact reduced to insignificance compared to the size of the sky.
All enormity is somehow relative.
23. Among the authorities, it is generally accepted that the Earth is at rest in the middle of the universe, and they find it inconceivable and even ridiculous to have a contrary opinion. However, if we take a closer look, the issue will still not be resolved, and so decidedly it should not be underestimated. For every apparent change from position, it is due to the movement of the observed object, or the observer, or even an unequal change of the two.
Another sentence on relativity.
24. Those who know that the consensus of several centuries has sanctioned the conception that the Earth remains at rest in the center of the sky as its center, would consider, as I consider it to be a pronounced insanity, if I said the opposite that the Earth move.
Think about the strength of social consensus.
25. Because what could be more beautiful than the sky contained all the beautiful things.
About the majesty of the universe.
26. I am aware that the ideas of a philosopher are not subject to the judgment of ordinary people, because his effort is to seek truth in all things, as far as human reason permits.
On the epistemology of his time.
27. Moreover, since the sun remains stationary, anything that appears as a movement of the sun is more due to the movement of the Earth.
Another of the discoveries on research on the relationship between the Earth and the Sun.
28. In so many important forms, therefore, the planets bear witness to the mobility of the earth.
By looking outward, you can get to know the Earth better.
29. In the first book, I will describe all the positions of the spheres, as well as the motions that I attribute to the Earth, so that the book contains, so to speak, the general structure of the universe. In the remaining books, I relate the motions of the remaining stars, and all spheres, to the mobility of the Earth, so that it can establish to what extent the motions and appearances of the remaining stars and spheres can be saved, if they refer to the movements of the Earth.
Advance the structure of his scientific writings.
30. I will now remember that the motion of celestial bodies is circular, since the proper motion of a sphere is the rotation in a circle.
Another conclusion reached by the previous results.
31. First of all, it should be noted that the universe is spherical.
Another of the starting points used by this scientist.
32. Contempt for the novelty and unconventional character of my opinion almost made me abandon the work I had undertaken altogether.
Copernicus, confessing the psychological impact that opinions against his work had for him.
33. Astronomy is written by astronomers. For them, my work will also seem, unless I am mistaken, to make a contribution.
A common effort to better understand the reality of the stars.
34. However, the widespread planetary theories advanced by Ptolemy and most other astronomers, while being consistent with numerical data, did not appear to present any less difficulty either. Because these theories were not appropriate unless they also designed some equalizer circles, which made the planet appear to move at all times at a uniform speed neither in its sphere of deference nor in the center of its own epicycle.
A critical look at the work of previous researchers.
35. In the midst of this, all the sun dwells.
Another of the main conclusions of this scientist on the solar system.
36. It is the duty of an astronomer to compose the history of celestial movements by careful and expert study.
An opinion on the role of the astronomer.
37. Because when a ship floats quietly, sailors see their movement reflected everywhere outside, while, on the other hand, they assume that they are stationary, with everything on board. Likewise, the movement of the earth can undoubtedly produce the impression that the entire universe is spinning.
About a subjective impression which does not reflect reality.
38. Although all the good arts serve to divert the mind of man from vices and lead him to better things, this function can be fulfilled more fully by this art, which also affords extraordinary intellectual pleasure.
Art can channel basic needs.
39. Not only did the phenomena of others flow from it, but they also united the order and grandeur of all the planets and spheres so much as the sky itself, that nowhere could it change anything without confusion between the other parts. and throughout the universe. .
A logical chain that commits to various scientific conclusions.
40. Therefore, having obtained the opportunity from these sources, I also began to consider the mobility of the earth.
More explanations on the beginnings of Copernicus’ research on planetary motion.
41. Therefore, since nothing prevents the Earth from moving, I suggest that we should now also examine whether various movements satisfy it, so that it can be considered as one of the planets. Because it is not the center of all revolutions.
42. We are taught all this the movement of the Earth on its axis and around the sun by the order of succession, in which these phenomena (various planetary events) follow one another, and by the harmony of the world, if we do so. only. so, as the saying goes, look at matter with both eyes.
43. When, therefore, I had considered this uncertainty of traditional mathematics, I began to grow weary that there was no longer a definitive explanation of the movement of the world of machines established in our name by the builder the best and most systematic of all, among the philosophers who had studied so exactly in other respects the smallest details of the sphere.
Another of Copernicus’ sentences in which his motives are discussed.
44. For a traveler going from anywhere north, this pole of daily rotation gradually rises higher, while the opposite pole falls evenly.
Another reflection based on mathematical logic.
45. Then, influenced by these advisers and by this hope, I finally allowed my friends to publish the work, as they had asked me for a long time.
More considerations on the riddle of the publication of certain conclusions.
46. We consider it certain that the earth, enclosed between the dust, is delimited by a spherical surface.
The description of a widespread belief.
47. Therefore, I would not be unknown to His Holiness, the only thing that led me to seek another way to calculate the motions of heavenly bodies was that I knew that mathematicians in no way agreed in their research on themselves.
The lack of consensus drives research.
48. The two revolutions, I mean the annual revolutions of the decline and the center of the Earth, are not completely equal; that is, the return of the declination to its original value is slightly ahead of the central period. Therefore, it is necessarily inferred that the equinoxes and solstices seem to anticipate their synchronization, not because the sphere of fixed stars is moving east, but because the equatorial circle is moving west, at an angle with the plane of the ecliptic in proportion to the declination. of the axis of the globe.
Appreciations on the axes of movement.
49. Stronger affection and greater zeal should, I think, favor studies related to the most beautiful objects. It is the discipline which deals with the divine revolutions of the universe, the movements of the stars, sizes, distances, climbs and scenarios. . . because what is more beautiful than paradise?
In defense of the aesthetic component of astronomy.
- Since there is therefore no objection to the mobility of the Earth, I think that now we have to ask ourselves whether various movements are suitable for it, so that it can be considered one of the wandering stars. One more step in the reasoning undertaken by this researcher.
51. Thus, if the value of the arts is measured by the subject matter they deal with, that art – which some call astronomy, others astrology, and many of the ancients the consumption of mathematics – would be by far the most important. This art, which is like the head of all liberal arts and the most worthy of a free man, is based on almost all the other branches of mathematics. Arithmetic, geometry, optics, geodesy, mechanics and all the rest are available to you.
An appreciation of the value of the scientific field covered by Copernicus.
52. We see that there are no more stars in the north, while in the south we no longer see stars rising.
An observation in the celestial vault.
53. I have no doubt that some educated men, now that the novelty of the hypotheses in this work has been widely disclosed – it therefore asserts that the Earth is in motion, and the Sun is stationary in the middle of the universe – are extremely shocked, and thinks that academic disciplines, properly established once and for all, should not be disturbed. But if they are prepared to judge the matter thoroughly, they will find that the author of this work has done nothing that deserves censorship.
On the impact of their discoveries on their historical context.
54. True laws cannot be obtained by the use of reason; and from these assumptions movements can be calculated correctly, both for the future and for the past.
55. Nor do these assumptions have to be true, or even probable, but it is sufficient that they simply produce calculations which agree with the observations.
A reflection on the process of scientific knowledge creation.
56. I myself consider gravity to be nothing more than a certain natural inclination with which the Architect of all things permeates the parts to come together in unity and the whole coming together in the form of a globe.
A curious explanation of how gravity works based on the concept of God.
57. The apparent retrograde and direct motion of the planets does not come from their motion, but from the Earth.
Another of Copernicus’ sentences showing how he expressed his greatest discovery.
58. It is easy to believe that the Sun, the Moon and other luminaries among the wandering stars also have this tendency, so that by their action they retain the rounded shape in which they reveal themselves, but nevertheless pass through their orbits of various ways. If then the Earth also makes other movements, such as the center, they must necessarily be similar to those observed in a similar way in many external bodies in which one finds an annual orbit.
Considerations on the movements of stars and their relation to those of the Earth.
59. Therefore, since nothing prevents the Earth from moving, I suggest that we should now also examine whether various movements satisfy it, so that it can be considered as one of the planets.
60. What appears to us as movements of the Sun does not come from its movement, but from the movement of the Earth and our sphere, with which we revolve around the Sun like any other planet. The earth then has more than one movement.
Description of rotational and translational movements.
61. Some think that the earth remains at rest. But Philolaus the Pythagoras believes that, like the sun and the moon, it revolves around the fire forming an oblique circle. Heraclides Pontus and Ephantus the Pythagoras move the earth, not in a gradual motion, but like a wheel in a west-east rotation around its own center.
An examination of the different perspectives on the nature of planet Earth.
62. I therefore set myself the task of rereading the books of all the philosophers who were to find out whether anyone had ever believed that the movements of the spheres of the universe were different from those taught in mathematics in schools.
Explain their motivations and their point of view Departure.
63. I have long wondered whether it was necessary to shed light on my treatise, written to demonstrate the movement of the Earth, or whether it would not be better to follow the example of the Pythagoreans and a few others, who conveyed the mysteries of Earth. their philosophy simply to family and friends, not in writing, but through personal contact, as Lysias letter to Hipparchus testifies.
This researcher feared reprisals his findings could provoke.
64. By constant observation and meaningful contact with the divine order of the world structure, arranged by the wisdom of God, which would not be guided to admire the Builder who creates all!
A mixture of Christian faith and the use of the principles of science.
65. After tackling this very difficult and almost insoluble problem, I came to the conclusion of how I could solve it with fewer and much simpler constructions than those used before, if I was granted certain assumptions. (which are they axioms).
On the need to start from hypotheses.
66. The center of the Earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and the lunar sphere.
About the relative importance of our planet.
67. The relation of the distance of the Earth from the Sun to the height of the firmament is much smaller than the relation of the radius of the Earth to its distance from the Sun, as the distance from the Earth to the Sun is imperceptible compared to the height of the firmament.
68. Any movement that appears in the firmament does not come from any movement of the firmament, but from the movement of the earth. The Earth with its surrounding elements makes a complete rotation in its fixed poles in a daily movement, while the firmament and the highest sky remain unchanged.
A clear summary of Copernicus’ main discovery.
69. All these phenomena come from the same course, which is in the motion of the Earth. But the fact that none of these phenomena appear in fixed stars shows their immense elevation, which even makes the circle of their annual movement or apparent movement of our eyes disappear.
An estimate of the great distance at which the celestial bodies are located.
70. Several other very eminent and learned men made the same request, insisting that I should no longer, for fear of denying myself, donate my work for the common benefit of mathematics students.
On the dissemination of the discoveries of this scientist.
71. I can easily conceive, Holy Father, that as soon as some will learn that in this book I wrote on the revolutions of the celestial bodies, I attribute certain movements of the Earth, they will immediately claim that I and my theory must be rejected.
Copernicus’ ideas were considered dangerous for Christian doctrine.