Find information and different ways to solve a problem it is something that living things must constantly do in order to survive. This also extends to the human being, who is also characterized by having developed a society in which the problems are not limited to the immediate aspects related to survival but to the generation of different methods to solve abstract and complex problems ( work, social, logical or scientific aspects for example).
This is why, from childhood and throughout education, it is necessary to stimulate the capacity for research, research and selection of information in order to be able to solve certain problems. The methodologies and models used to achieve this stimulation can be multiple, being an example, the model of call Gavilán, Which we will talk about throughout this article.
The Sparrowhawk model: an information research methodology
It is called the Gavilán model to a methodology composed of four basic steps which aims to contribute to be able to carry out valid, coherent, logical and rational investigations. It is a methodology born and applied mainly in the academic field (both in school and university training).
The model in question research on the one hand guides students in terms of the methodology to be used when researching information in order to be able to give at the same time to stimulate competence and mastery of location, selection and l use of information.
this model was prepared by the Gabriel Piedrahita Uribe Foundation (The name Sparrow comes from the nickname given in childhood to this young man, who died at the age of 22 in a plane crash and shortly before graduating as a teacher at Harvard) given the difficulties observed in other educational models at the time of obtaining that the estudiantazgo has carried out research of exhaustive and quality information so that advice is offered and allows teachers to develop activities that allow the student to know a specific methodology to seek reliable information in the most optimal way possible.
Esparver’s model is a simple model, easily understood at the different ages to which it is generally applied, dedicated to finding information on very specific questions and problems. focused on collecting and analyzing information in itself and not so much of the actual resolution of a problem. In other words, this model offers a framework or a methodology, but not a solution to questions that require an answer.
As mentioned above, Gavilán’s model consists of a series of four steps or phases focused on finding and collecting information, each with different substeps.
It is a simple process that can be followed by students and professionals: Although the process focuses on the student or researcher, the model also offers different options for analyzing and evaluating the process for teachers who apply it, and can perform evaluations in each of the stages that are part of it. The steps in question would be as follows.
1. Define the problem
First of all, Gavilán’s model proposes that in order to do good research, the first thing to do is to define and delimit the problem or topic that you want to research or that needs a solution. It seeks to learn to identify what they are working on, what the purpose is and what they may need to participate in it.
In this step, we must first ask a specific question, delimit the subject or aspect to be worked on or the objectives to be achieved.
Subsequently, this question must not only be identified but also analyzed in order to understand what they are looking for, what opinion or ideas they have in the basic respect and the difficulties that can lead to the accomplishment of their objectives or the resolution of the problem to be investigated.
After that, it will be necessary for the subject to generate a series of possible pathways or processes that he can follow to obtain the information and aspects of the question that may provide information to resolve it. In other words, develop a research plan.
During the development of this plan, secondary questions will arise which, at the bottom, will provide us with more precise information on what we want to know and will allow us to have a more exact and precise vision of the subject.
2. Find and evaluate information
Once you’ve located what needs to be researched and planned how we’re going to do it, the next step is to take action: start researching information. The purpose of this step of the model is to develop information retrieval skills.
First of all, it will be necessary to identify possible sources of information, assess which might be the most appropriate and valuable and the type of information they can get from them.
A second step would be to go to these sources of information or those that are available (because access to them is not always possible, especially), and to proceed to research the type of information that would be required.
At this point and observe the type of source and its content we want the student to be able to determine whether the source itself is reliable and valid or not.
3. Analyze the information
While the previous step focused more on finding, accessing and evaluating sources, in this third step the work will be done directly with the information itself to work on. Aspects such as critical evaluation of information, the use of resources or the search for consistency in information will be worked on.
First of all, the subject must read the information present in the sources previously evaluated and analyze what this information is. adapts to the initial question or secondary questions.
Once this is done, a critical analysis of the extracted information should be performed to assess whether it allows for resolution of the issues, or whether further and exhaustive exploration or other sources may be required. It is necessary not only to read, but also to understand and give it meaning.
Subsequently, this information will attempt to answer the secondary questions, transforming the information according to what the subject understood about it and its relation to the questions asked.
4. Synthesize information and use
The last step of this model focuses on, having the information already extracted, generating content or giving a real answer to the initial questions or problems. Aspects such as endowing meaning, understanding what you are working on explored and the ability to synthesize and apply what has been analyzed.
First, having already answered the secondary questions that arose during the development of the intervention plan, it will be necessary to synthesize them and generate an answer to the main question that led to the research process.
After having this answer, we need to be able to apply it to specific situations, generate a product or use it to solve the underlying problem (Even if it is at a theoretical level).
Finally, since Gavilán’s model is research-oriented, the last step will be to explain, express or record the results of the process. It is an approach that reveals to others the existence of real research, its understanding and its mastery.
A very useful model
The Gavilán model is relatively new, but we are ahead a simple and easily applicable model.
In addition to this, it enables students to improve their skills in finding and processing information from different types, something essential in a computerized society (this model was created taking into account the strong presence of information and communication technologies) and with access to a huge volume of information sources , many of which are unreliable, contradictory to other sources, or outdated.
This applies to all types of research process, Especially in the field of education but without sticking to it (although scientific research in general requires a much more demanding process eg when validating data).
- Cánchica de Medina, M. (2016). Gavilán model for the development of information management skills via Google Drive. An innovative experience. Academy and Virtuality Magazine, 9, (2), 10-26.
- Eduteka (2007). Gavilán 2.0 model. A proposal for the development of the competency to manage information (CMI).[Online]. Available at: http: //www.eduteka. org / pdfdir / ModeloGavilan.pdf [Consultado 25 de enero 2018].
- González, L. and Sánchez, B. (2007). A Guide to Using the Sparrowhawk Model in the Classroom. [Online]. Available at: www.eduteka.org/modulos/1/1/.