There are many theoretical concepts that attempt to establish certain criteria when evaluating and implementing equality between people. One of them is the concept of gender equality, What we will try today to describe and know in depth.
Equity and gender
Impartiality, justice and equality are the parts on which the concept of equity is based, on the other hand, the way of associating and grouping individuals who share at least one or more characteristics is gender.
Gender equality and equity
“The different behaviors, aspirations and needs of women and men are considered, valued and favored in the same way”
-ABC of women workers for gender equality; Geneva, 2000, p. 47-48
Equality between men and women is protected by gender equality in the use of social goods and services. This means eliminating discrimination based on sex and not favoring men over women in aspects that make up social life, as was generally the case decades ago in Western society as a whole.
Gender equity conditions
“The rights, responsibilities and opportunities of everyone will not depend on whether the person is a man or a woman”
However, for gender equity to occur, two essential circumstances must arise. On the one hand, equal opportunities and on the other hand create a series of conditions to take advantage of these opportunities.
We must keep in mind that gender equity it means creating norms for these existing opportunities and distributing them equally between both genders. Men and women should have the same development opportunities in all aspects; on a personal level, the opportunity to grow, achieve and be happy, just like at work. The state must therefore ensure that resources are allocated proportionately.
“Men and women will be treated equally according to their own needs. The treatment given to each may be different but equivalent in terms of rights, benefits, obligations and opportunities.”
Gender equality at work
The woman cannot have a lower remuneration compared to the man when she performs the same functions with regard to the scope of work, they should get the same on their merits and one genre should not be favored over the other. Regardless of gender, equal pay should be seen in the same profession, with the same responsibilities and obligations.
We must add an extremely important aspect, equity does not mean neglecting the characteristics of each particular sex, an example is that women have the right, just like men, to maternity leave longer than leave of paternity. In that case, we deal with strictly biological issues and practice what is known as positive gender discrimination.
What do we mean by positive discrimination?
Below, we will explain a crucial concept when applying fairness, whether it is affirmative action or affirmative action. This term is key: it refers to actions aimed at reducing discriminatory practices against the sectors, Who culturally throughout history, have been excluded and viewed as uprooted and vulnerable.
An example would be people with physical or mental disabilities and similarly women, who due to the influence of Judeo-Christian and patriarchal culture, have been relegated to the category of second-rate individuals. All this is further aggravated if, due to the extra sex, the woman fulfills the condition of suffering from some decrease as we have mentioned or any other characteristic culturally considered negative.
Positive discrimination results in specific legislation designed to equalize employment opportunities, Exercise of democratic rights, participation in institutions and governing bodies of the State, as well as access to education. For all this, it took countless years of mobilization and social protest.
An example is laws for the protection of women in cases of gender-based violence, the promotion of mixed education or non-segregation by sex, financial assistance or tax exemptions, among other measures.
In some developed countries, the result of affirmative action has been very effective in the progressive equalization of women in the labor market.
What progress has been made in the area of positive discrimination?
It should be noted that to achieve this equity, significant progress is currently being made.. We note, to mention a fact, that in Spain the so-called parity between men and women in the political sphere is encouraged.
There are organizations that focus exclusively on gender equity. These organizations promote equality between men and women while defending women’s rights. They constantly make useful policy proposals to achieve equity, Encouraging women to be present and participate in all sectors of society.
Here is an interesting reminder of the most important events in relation to women’s rights and in matters of equality and equity. Like the 1982 Committee for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and recommendation 19 which clarified that violence against women is a form of discrimination. Another event would be the unprecedented mobilization of 1993 to demand that the World Conference on Human Rights stand in favor of his rights and that it lead to the creation of article 18; which reads as follows:
“The human rights of women and girls are an inalienable and indivisible part of universal human rights. The full participation, on an equal footing, of women in political, civil, economic, social and cultural life and the elimination of all forms of discrimination based on sex is a priority objective of the international community “
“All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” (..) “Everyone has all the rights and freedoms proclaimed in this Declaration, without distinction of race, color, sex, language, religion, political opinion or any other nature, national or social origin, situation economic, birth or any other condition ”
Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Articles 1 and 2.
“Spaniards are equal before the law, without any discrimination based on birth, race, sex, religion, opinion or any other personal or social condition or circumstance that prevails”
-The Spanish Constitution of 1978; Article 14.